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Douglas Severance, MD, Family Medicine, answeredMitral valve prolapse can cause atrial fibrillation. Mitral valve prolapse is a disease of one of the heart valves. This is frequently an inherited problem. For most people, this condition is benign. But in serious cases of mitral valve prolapse, the person can experience arrhythmias, heart failure, severe mitral regurgitation, and stroke. As with other heart valve problems, mitral valve prolapse can weaken your heart and decrease how efficiently it pumps blood. In mitral valve stenosis, which may be caused by an abnormal valve, the atrium of the heart becomes stretched and enlarged. The stretching and enlargement of your heart's left atrium can lead to atrial fibrillation, a heart rhythm irregularity. The upper chambers of the heart beat chaotically and rapidly with atrial fibrillation and medical treatment is usually necessary to convert the heartbeat to normal, sinus rhythm.