Heart and Circulatory System

Heart and Circulatory System

Heart and Circulatory System
Your circulatory system is made up of your heart and three main types of blood vessels -- arteries, veins and capillaries. Your heart is at the center of the system, acting as a pump to distribute nutrient- and oxygen-rich blood through your body; it then takes away carbon dioxide and other waste your body doesn't need. Signs of poor circulation include cold hands and feet, numbness, dizziness, migraines, varicose veins and pain in your feet or legs. Untreated, poor circulation can lead to stroke, high blood pressure, kidney damage and other diseases. Learn more about your heart and circulatory system with expert advice from Sharecare.

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    Kengreal (cangrelor) is a medication intended for patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a procedure to open blocked or partially blocked coronary arteries. Kengreal is a kind of drug known as a direct-acting P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitor. It inhibits the formation of dangerous blood clots in the arteries that lead to the heart. It is adminstered by IV before and during the PCI. The effects of the drug wear off an hour after treatment. If the doctor believes the patient will benefit from continued anti-clot medication following the PCI, an oral P2Y12 platelet inhibitor will likely be administered.
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    High blood pressure in a young person is can be a concern for their long-term health. High blood pressure (BP), or hypertension, may not cause a young person any symptoms. However, continuous high BP eventually harms your internal organs, especially the heart, kidneys and brain. If high BP is untreated, symptoms gradually develop as you age.
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    People undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery may not have to follow a strict blood sugar management strategy after surgery.

    Previous research has shown that hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) after CABG and other cardiac surgery is associated with increased morbidity and mortality; however, more recent studies have shown that liberal maintenance of blood glucose levels -- less than 180 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) after CABG surgery -- can be safer and more advantageous in both people with diabetes and those without diabetes.
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    A Cardiology (Cardiovascular Disease), answered on behalf of
    How is venous disease diagnosed?
    Venous disease is diagnosed by a standing ultrasound of the veins in the legs, says interventional cardiologist Rajendran Sabapathy, MD, of Overland Park Regional Medical Center. In this video, he describes how doctors perform the test.
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    A Neurosurgery, answered on behalf of
    Because surgery results in the complete elimination of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the vast majority of cases, more than 98% to 99% of AVMs are completely obliterated. The therapeutic method, or technique that most effectively eliminates the risk of hemorrhages, is surgical removal, but it’s got to be done without causing neurological disability. That’s the key issue, and in some cases, surgery is not possible. For instance, if the grade of the AVM is too high and therefore the surgical risk is too high, alternative methods will have to be used when treating it. In these cases, stereotactic radiosurgery (a form of focused radiation therapy often called the Gamma Knife treatment) is a viable alternative.
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    A Neurosurgery, answered on behalf of
    In some cases, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brain, particularly very large AVMs, have to be reduced in size in order to make surgery safer. They have to be reduced in size in order to minimize the chance of bleeding during the surgery, which is one of the key risks. Today that’s done with by embolization (obstruction of a blood vessel) through a catheter introduced into the artery in the same way as a heart angiogram is done or as a brain angiogram diagnostic study is done.
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    Allowing select people to self-manage blood thinners following heart valve surgery may lead to a lower risk of major complications.  Researchers evaluated the use of patient self-management of anticoagulation therapy at two hospitals in Denmark between 1996 and 2012 and compared it to the standard management, which requires laboratory analysis to determine the correct dosage. Their study included 615 people with mechanical heart valves who self-managed treatment and 3,075 controls (a 5:1 ratio) who received standard treatment management following valve surgery.

    The people were required to attend an educational program containing a minimum of three teaching lessons in order to be eligible for self-management. Over a period of 27 weeks following the educational training, patients gradually became self-managed.

    Once people were approved for self-management, they were allowed to continue as such but could contact the treatment center with questions or concerns. They were provided with a portable coagulometer, which they used to analyze medication levels and monitor dosage. Blood levels were measured and tracked weekly.

    The people compared their own measurements against the International Normalized Ratio (INR), a number that explains how quickly blood clots. Based on this ratio, they adjusted their dosage levels according to what they had been taught in the educational training.

    The researchers observed low rates of adverse events among the people who transitioned to self-management. At one year after treatment, the risk of major bleeding and thromboembolism (a blood clot that moves through the bloodstream and blocks another vessel) were similar in both treatment groups. After five years, however, the people who self-managed their anticoagulants had a lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to those on standard management. 
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    A Neurosurgery, answered on behalf of
    An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the brain is like a birth defect of sorts -- almost like a birthmark in the brain. It’s congenital, which means it’s present at birth, but it’s not necessarily hereditary. Only in rare cases is AVM hereditary
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    A Neurosurgery, answered on behalf of
    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brain can cause headaches, seizures and brain hemorrhage, which can be quite serious. When people go to the doctor with an AVM in the brain that’s caused a brain hemorrhage, there’s often a neurological deficit. This may take the form of a speech impairment, it may be paralysis of an arm and leg, or it may be a coma. About 10% to 15% of the time when an AVM ruptures, the rupture is so severe that the outcome is death, such as a fatal hemorrhage from the AVM.
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    A study assessed the long-term survival and health-related quality of life of people based on their glucose control following first-time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery.

    Researchers found that survival after heart bypass surgery was not affected by the level of blood sugar control in the hospital while recovering from surgery, as long as blood sugar was kept below 180 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). The study also found that health-related quality of life significantly improved in all people from baseline to six months, whether or not they had strict blood sugar control.

    These results may encourage more hospitals to consider a less strict control of blood sugar in all people after heart bypass surgery, which could reduce the chances for hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) events in hospital, as well as secondary complications from drops in blood sugar.