Types Of Exercise Programs

Types Of Exercise Programs

Types Of Exercise Programs

From walking to engaging in team sports, exercise comes in many forms. Aerobics, stretching, weightlifting and endurance training are some of the types of exercise that produce health benefits and enjoyment. With each type of exercise, proper technique and posture is critical in preventing injuries while achieving maximum health results.

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    The lat muscle is a fan-shaped muscle that runs from the low back to the front of the arm. The way the muscle fibers are aligned allow the lat to be worked in different planes. When you can work a muscle to its full capacity, the muscle can develop optimally (e.g., making the muscle larger). While muscle hypertrophy (enlargement) takes increased volume, load, and proper nutrition, the lats are a great muscle that can get amazing development from simply changing the angle of resistance.
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    Heart rate training is just what it sounds like--training using your heart rate as a guide to improve cardiovascular health. There are 3 training zones:

    • zone 1: 65-75% maximum heart rate. This zone is also known as the recovery zone and can be maintained for long periods of time. Exercising in this zone allows the body to improve it's ablilty to get oxygen where it is needed during exercise.
    • zone 2: 80-85% maximum heart rate. This zone is more intense because at this level  the body cannot supply the amount of oxygen needed with regular breathing. Exercising at this level also burns more calories than at zone 1.
    • zone 3: 86-90% maximum heart rate. This is the most intense zone and cannot be maintained for long periods of time (no longer than 60 seconds). This zone should be used along with the zones 1 and 2. Someone using heart rate training will generally start exercising in zone 1 and progress until they are using a combination of the heart rate zones in a workout. Incorporating the next zone into a workout should be based on how quickly the heart recovers after being in each zone. 

    Heart rate training prevents hitting a plateau. For instance, if a person always exercised using zone 1 the body would never be able to improve it's cardiovascular abilities. Varying a workout to include all three training zones will allow the body to reach peak performance levels.

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    The time it takes for the heart rate to return to normal after exercise is called Heart Rate Recovery.  Heart Rate Recovery is the measured heart rate at a fixed period of time after stopping activity; typically measured over a 1 minute period.  The recovery time setting on a heart rate monitor will track the heart rate of the individual for the pre-determined time.  The recovery time setting can be used to track progress after workouts.  The healthier a person's heart is, the quicker it returns to its normal beat, and the less healthy the heart is, the longer it takes it to return to its normal beat.
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    You can overexert your heart when you are working out. Working out for prolonged periods of time at or above your maximal heart rate is not recommended.

    A basic formula for determining your maximal heart rate is 220 minus your age. For example, the maximal heart rate for a 35-year-old is 185. It is recommended to have a 5- to 10-minute warm-up before beginning a workout, and then a 5- to 10-minute cooldown after finishing exercising. This not only warms up your skeletal muscles to prevent injury, but also increases your heart rate gradually.

    It is also recommended that you perform cardio respiratory workouts 3 to 5 times per week to improve your heart health. This allows a day between each workout for your body and heart to recover from intense workouts. Without this recovery time, you could cause fatigue and possible overuse injuries.

    (This answer provided for NATA by the King College Athletic Training Education Program.)

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    Integrated training takes the best of all types of training and puts it together into one useable format. There are many benefits to be had from different types and styles of training. Unfortunately, most people do not experience enough variety in their exercise programs and they miss out. Here is a partial list of exercise components that can be sampled and included into almost anyone’s fitness routine; cardio (long, slow training, medium intensity intervals, high intensity intervals and more), weight training, balance training, plyometrics, speed-agility-quickness training, core training, body weight training and so on. One can draw from; rehabilitation principles, yoga, pilates, sports conditioning, tai-chi, martial arts, dance, power lifting or any other discipline. So don’t get caught in a rut or miss experiencing the entire spectrum of benefits of an integrated and varied exercises program. Just start slow and keep adjusting all aspects of your program every 4-6 weeks to get the most out of your program. 

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    By incorporating many different types of exercise into one program, integrated training can be beneficial for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, core health, balance, agility, muscular strength, and muscular power. By constantly focusing on different outcomes and through constant changing of the types of exercises performed, integrated training can minimize the risk of overuse injuries and hitting a plateau thus maximizing results.

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    Integrated training incorporates multiple forms of resistance exercise that challenge the muscular system in a progressive manner. This is very effective for individuals who are trying to get stronger because it prevents the body from adapting or becoming accustomed to the exercise program and, thereby, forces it to continue to change and gain strength.

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    Integrated training incorporates multiple forms of resistance exercise that challenge the muscular system in a progressive manner. This is very effective for individuals who are trying to build muscle because it prevents the body from adapting or becoming accustomed to the exercise program, forcing it to continue to change and grow in size.

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    HIIT is supposed to be intense and you should be exercising at the upper end of your maximum heart rate (MHR) zone, which can be dangerous unless you are highly conditioned. Like any exercise program, you should consult your doctor before starting any HIIT program.  With the HIIT program it is highly recommended that you have a good cardio and strength base before starting. When working on your base program you can also start to monitor your heart rate and adjust your personal heart rate zones so you understand what your body can handle and recover from. Once you have your heart zones, use these to monitor the HIIT program. Having your heart rate spike because of the high intensity is safe if you have the base and you know what peak heart rate you should reach during the workout. More important is to watch how your body recovers in the rest periods of HIIT. The heart rate is fine if it spikes as long as it recovers quickly. When the heart rate recovery starts to slow down, this is a sign that you have trained hard enough that day and you need to take time to recover for the next workout.

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    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers multiple benefits and advantages to people who are accustomed to steady-state cardio workouts, or running or walking at the same pace for 30 minutes or more. HIIT workouts burn more calories in a shorter time span, help build endurance and keep people from getting bored.

    In addition, scientists at the Mayo Clinic found that HIIT boosted the ability of the mitochondria in muscle cells to generate energy significantly in older and younger populations. In fact, older study subjects (ages 65 to 80) enjoyed a muscle-energy increase of 69 percent after adopting a HIIT regimen. Since mitochondrial activity declines with age, the researchers behind this study found the results extremely promising for older individuals.
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