Types Of Exercise Programs

Types Of Exercise Programs

Types Of Exercise Programs

From walking to engaging in team sports, exercise comes in many forms. Aerobics, stretching, weightlifting and endurance training are some of the types of exercise that produce health benefits and enjoyment. With each type of exercise, proper technique and posture is critical in preventing injuries while achieving maximum health results.

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    You can overexert your heart when you are working out. Working out for prolonged periods of time at or above your maximal heart rate is not recommended.

    A basic formula for determining your maximal heart rate is 220 minus your age. For example, the maximal heart rate for a 35-year-old is 185. It is recommended to have a 5- to 10-minute warm-up before beginning a workout, and then a 5- to 10-minute cooldown after finishing exercising. This not only warms up your skeletal muscles to prevent injury, but also increases your heart rate gradually.

    It is also recommended that you perform cardio respiratory workouts 3 to 5 times per week to improve your heart health. This allows a day between each workout for your body and heart to recover from intense workouts. Without this recovery time, you could cause fatigue and possible overuse injuries.

    (This answer provided for NATA by the King College Athletic Training Education Program.)

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    Heart rate training is just what it sounds like--training using your heart rate as a guide to improve cardiovascular health. There are 3 training zones:

    • zone 1: 65-75% maximum heart rate. This zone is also known as the recovery zone and can be maintained for long periods of time. Exercising in this zone allows the body to improve it's ablilty to get oxygen where it is needed during exercise.
    • zone 2: 80-85% maximum heart rate. This zone is more intense because at this level  the body cannot supply the amount of oxygen needed with regular breathing. Exercising at this level also burns more calories than at zone 1.
    • zone 3: 86-90% maximum heart rate. This is the most intense zone and cannot be maintained for long periods of time (no longer than 60 seconds). This zone should be used along with the zones 1 and 2. Someone using heart rate training will generally start exercising in zone 1 and progress until they are using a combination of the heart rate zones in a workout. Incorporating the next zone into a workout should be based on how quickly the heart recovers after being in each zone. 

    Heart rate training prevents hitting a plateau. For instance, if a person always exercised using zone 1 the body would never be able to improve it's cardiovascular abilities. Varying a workout to include all three training zones will allow the body to reach peak performance levels.

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    The time it takes for the heart rate to return to normal after exercise is called Heart Rate Recovery.  Heart Rate Recovery is the measured heart rate at a fixed period of time after stopping activity; typically measured over a 1 minute period.  The recovery time setting on a heart rate monitor will track the heart rate of the individual for the pre-determined time.  The recovery time setting can be used to track progress after workouts.  The healthier a person's heart is, the quicker it returns to its normal beat, and the less healthy the heart is, the longer it takes it to return to its normal beat.
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    Integrated training takes the best of all types of training and puts it together into one useable format. There are many benefits to be had from different types and styles of training. Unfortunately, most people do not experience enough variety in their exercise programs and they miss out. Here is a partial list of exercise components that can be sampled and included into almost anyone’s fitness routine; cardio (long, slow training, medium intensity intervals, high intensity intervals and more), weight training, balance training, plyometrics, speed-agility-quickness training, core training, body weight training and so on. One can draw from; rehabilitation principles, yoga, pilates, sports conditioning, tai-chi, martial arts, dance, power lifting or any other discipline. So don’t get caught in a rut or miss experiencing the entire spectrum of benefits of an integrated and varied exercises program. Just start slow and keep adjusting all aspects of your program every 4-6 weeks to get the most out of your program. 

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    By incorporating many different types of exercise into one program, integrated training can be beneficial for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, core health, balance, agility, muscular strength, and muscular power. By constantly focusing on different outcomes and through constant changing of the types of exercises performed, integrated training can minimize the risk of overuse injuries and hitting a plateau thus maximizing results.

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    Integrated training incorporates multiple forms of resistance exercise that challenge the muscular system in a progressive manner. This is very effective for individuals who are trying to build muscle because it prevents the body from adapting or becoming accustomed to the exercise program, forcing it to continue to change and grow in size.

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    Integrated training incorporates multiple forms of resistance exercise that challenge the muscular system in a progressive manner. This is very effective for individuals who are trying to get stronger because it prevents the body from adapting or becoming accustomed to the exercise program and, thereby, forces it to continue to change and gain strength.

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    The length of circuit training is a very important factor when developing your program. One of the benefits of this type of training is that the workout is highly effective in a small amount of  time. For anyone just beginning, 30 minutes should be enough time. With many athletes, 45 minutes is usually the maximum they can handle while maintaining focus and form. The only reason someone should go longer is if they are a beginner, in which case I would add a significant amount of recovery time to their program. They are not doing more work, rather are simply taking a longer time to complete the work. As they improve, the rest periods will decrease, which in turn will make the total time of the workout less.  However at this point the work period may be a bit longer.  Another important factor is how long you do metabolic training before going on to another type of training. If you are just trying to jumpstart your program because you have hit a fitness or weight loss plateau, doing metabolic training for one to two weeks will help you get back on track and you can then move on to the next phase of your training periodization. If you would like to use this as a phase in your yearly periodization cycle, using a metabolic progression which begins slowly and builds up for four to six weeks will be beneficial.

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    HIIT refers to high intensity interval training (switching from high to medium intensity exercise). This means that you will be training for short periods at a high intensity with short rest periods. The goal is to train the full body in a short period of time while overloading your body. This will help promote calorie burning, cardiovascular strength, increased total body strength and increased metabolism. The high intensity exercise should be done at near maximum intensity. The medium intensity exercise should be at about 50% intensity. The number of repetitions and length of each interval depends on the exercise. The goal is to do at least six cycles and to have the entire HIIT session last at least fifteen minutes and not more than twenty. HIIT is considered to be an excellent way to maximize a workout when you are limited on time.  HIIT is performed at such an intense level that your body will spend the rest of the day expending energy to recover from it.  This is commonly referred to as EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption) and it means that you consume a great deal more oxygen recovering from the exercise bout than you would have if you'd just done a steady-state (low intensity) workout.
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    High intensity interval training (HIIT) significantly increases EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption). A study found that men increased the number of calories they burned during the 22 minutes after working out from 98 to 452 when they switched from a standard weight-resistance workout to one with shorter rest periods and fewer repetitions. Not only does HIIT provide this extra after-burn, it’s also a shorter workout. It can keep you burning fat the entire next day.
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