How Working Too Much Affects Your Heart

Finding work-life balance can help protect your health. Try these strategies to help ease your job-related stress.

Medically reviewed in December 2021

If you’re regularly clocking a 60-hour work week, it may feel stressful. But the toll is more than just emotional: those long hours may also be harmful for your heart.

People who work long hours—defined as working more than 10 hours for at least fifty days of the year—have a 29 percent greater risk of stroke, according to a study published in June 2019 in Stroke. And those who have worked these long hours for at least a decade have a 45 percent greater stroke risk compared to those who work less.

Another study published in 2015 in The Lancet, involving more than 600,000 employees, found that those who worked more than 55 hours per week had a 13 percent greater risk of heart attack and were 33 percent more likely to experience a stroke than those who worked 35 to 40 hours on a weekly basis.

Why work stress can tax the heart
There are several possible reasons why working long hours is associated with an increased risk for heart disease and stroke. People who are chained to their desks are sitting for prolonged periods of time and may be less physically active overall—two risk factors for stroke. If you’re working hard, you may also be tempted to “play” hard by binge drinking, which is another risk factor.

There’s also some evidence that people who work long hours are more likely to brush off symptoms of heart disease (which makes sense—who has time to see the doctor, right?). But if left untreated, heart disease can lead to heart attack or stroke. Complicating matters, working long hours may expose you to more mental and physical hazards, including stress due to high demands, noise, dust, toxic chemicals and lack of natural light, according to a 2018 review published in Current Cardiology Reports.

How to protect your health
Unfortunately, most of us can’t quit our day jobs. But that doesn’t mean there aren’t things you can do to ease job-related stress and protect your long-term heart health, especially if you tend to work long hours. Some steps you can take include:

Follow your passion. Working late or striving for a promotion isn’t necessarily unhealthy, as long as you’re generally happy and satisfied by your job, explains Marco Mejia, MD, an interventional cardiologist at the Kendall Regional Medical Center in Miami, Florida. “If you routinely put in 60-hour work weeks but love what you do, that’s a very different situation than someone who finds their job incredibly stressful and dreads being in the office every day,” says Dr. Mejia.

Stress raises levels of certain hormones, such as cortisol and adrenaline. In the short term, this can be helpful, triggering the “fight or flight” response that helps you deal with immediate threats. Over time, however, chronic stress can increase your risk for a slew of health issues, including heart disease. If you can’t bear the thought of slogging through another day at the office, consider making some proactive changes at work.

Find a positive work environment. A healthy workplace should provide ethical leadership and a safe environment where your efforts are recognized and rewarded. If there is a lack of trust and open communication in your workplace, it may be time for a career move.

A 2019 study of 400,000 American workers based on information from the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index examined the link between trust and openness in the workplace and seven risk factors for heart disease: smoking, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. The study, published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, found that those who work in jobs where they don’t trust their bosses are more likely to have several of these risks.

Get the right type of exercise. It’s important to get 30 minutes of physical activity most days of the week and resistance training at least twice a week, says Mejia. Regular exercise is important—even if your job requires some physical labor, he adds.

“I see carpenters who are using their bodies all day, but they lack physical conditioning,” Mejia says. “They still need some sort of aerobic activity, ideally every day, as well as resistance training to keep their muscles—including their heart muscle—strong.”

Keep in mind, if you’re short on time, physical activity can be spread out over the course of the week or broken up into quick sessions during the day. Even five minutes of exercise offers health benefits.

Take regular walk breaks. While prolonged sitting isn’t quite the new smoking, it’s relatively high up on the list of things that can take a toll on your heart. Research suggests it may not only raise the risk of heart disease but also of dying from heart disease—even if you exercise regularly.

One option is to take a one- to three-minute break every half hour or so throughout the day to go on a short walk, move around or even just stand up while you’re at work. Keep in mind, this is also a good habit to get into at home, particularly at night while you’re sitting on the sofa watching TV.

Eat fresh foods. Be wary of the sugary beverages and convenience foods—think soft drinks, packaged salty snacks, cookies, cakes, processed meats, instant soups—in your office break room or vending machine. A heart-healthy diet that limits salt, sugar, ultra-processed foods, red meat, full-fat dairy products, fried foods and other sources of saturated fat can help you control your weight, cholesterol levels and blood pressure.

One of the best and most popular diets for heart health is the Mediterranean, advises Mejia. This eating style emphasizes a wide variety of fruits and veggies along with whole grains, beans, nuts, lean protein (including fish) and healthy fats such as olive oil.

It’s a good idea to spend some time preparing healthy weekday meals ahead of time so when you’re tired and hungry after a long day, you don’t settle for take-out or pre-packaged foods. You’re also more likely to eat healthier during the workday if you pack your own lunch. Avoid eating at your desk or in front of your computer, which can lead to mindless snacking.  

Use your vacation time. Yes, there is some evidence that vacations are good for your heart as well as your soul. Researchers have suggested that taking an annual vacation could help reduce the risk for heart disease and that not using vacation time may be associated with a greater risk for heart attack. A 2018 study published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health also found that even a short getaway can have restorative effects, immediately easing stress and strain.

Get enough shut-eye. Research has long found an association between sleeping too little or too much with an increased risk of heart disease, while getting seven to nine hours of shut-eye each night is the “Goldilocks” zone of healthy sleep for most people. While you sleep, your blood pressure goes down. So, if you’re short on sleep, your blood pressure remains higher for a longer period of time. Over time, this can lead to higher blood pressure during the day, which may increase your risk for heart disease. Poor sleep is also linked to weight gain, which could lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes—both risk factors for heart disease.

Know your numbers. Your blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference are important measures of your heart health. It’s important to know your numbers and strive to keep them within a healthy range. Healthcare providers routinely assess these metrics at annual checkups. Talk to your doctor about the screening schedule that’s appropriate for you

Reach out for support: If you’re feeling overwhelmed at work or if you’re having trouble managing your stress level, don’t be afraid to ask your friends, co-workers or family members for help. This may be especially true for women struggling to maintain a work-life balance.

A study published in October 2019 in the Journal of the American Heart Association found that these women may be particularly vulnerable to the negative health effects of stress. For the study, researchers examined more than 11,000 Brazilian workers between the ages of 35 and 74 and had them fill out questionnaires. They found that the women who reported the most work-family conflicts had the poorest cardiovascular health.

If your anxiety is persistent and interfering with your ability to do your job or go about your daily routine, talk to your healthcare provider. Excessive anxiety isn’t healthy and could also be a warning sign of an anxiety disorder or another medical condition that needs treatment.

Sources:
Toni Alterman, Rebecca Tsai, Jun Ju, Kevin M. Kelly. “Trust in the Work Environment and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Findings from the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Jan 2019, 16(2):230.
Marc Fadel, Grace Sembajwe, Diana Gagliardi, et al. “Association Between Reported Long Working Hours and History of Stroke in the CONSTANCES Cohort.” Stroke. Jun 2019, 50:1879–1882.
Prof Mika Kivimäki, PhD, Markus Jokela, PhD, Solja T Nyberg, MSc, et al. “Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals.” The Lancet. Aug 2015; 386:1739-1746.
Mayo Clinic. “Stress Management.”
Harvard Medical School. “Only the overworked die young.”
Psychology Today. “Psychologically Unhealthy Work & Management - A Human Rights Violation?”
Richard Patterson, Eoin McNamara, Marko Tainio, et al. “Sedentary behaviour and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose response meta-analysis.” European Journal of Epidemiology. Mar 2018; 33(9):811–829.
Borodulin K1, Kärki A, Laatikainen T, et al. “Daily Sedentary Time and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: The National FINRISK 2002 Study." Journal of Physical Activity and Health. Jul 2015; 12(7):904-8.
American College of Physicians. “Too much sitting linked to serious health risks and death, regardless of exercise habits.”
Keith M. Diaz, PhD; Virginia J. Howard, PhD; Brent Hutto, MSPH, et all. “Patterns of Sedentary Behavior and Mortality in U.S. Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A National Cohort Study.” Annals of Internal Medicine. Oct 2017;167(7):465-475.
American Heart Association. “The American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations.”
National Sleep Foundation. “Tips for Healthy Eating and Exercising When Working Shifts.”
Cornelia Blank, Katharina Gatterer, Veronika Leichtfried, et al. “Short Vacation Improves Stress-Level and Well-Being in German-Speaking Middle-Managers—A Randomized Controlled Trial.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Jan 2018; 15(1): 130.
National Sleep Foundation. “How Sleep Deprivation Affects Your Heart.”
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “How Does Sleep Affect Your Heart Health?”
American College of Cardiology. “Know Your Numbers.”
Priscila T. P. Rocco, Isabela M. Bensenor, Rosane H. Griep, et all. “Work‐Family Conflict and Ideal Cardiovascular Health Score in the ELSA‐Brasil Baseline Assessment.” Journal of the American Heart Association. Oct 2019 Vol.8 No. 20.
Marianna Virtanen and Mika Kivimäki. “Long Working Hours and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease." Current Cardiology Reports. Oct 2018; 20(11): 123.

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