8 Top Tips to Lose Weight, According to Science

8 Top Tips to Lose Weight, According to Science

In a world of fad diets and confusing advice, these proven secrets to slimming down are backed by real research.

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By Taylor Lupo

In theory, losing weight is simple—burn more calories than you eat. But, as anyone who’s tried to slim down can tell you, it’s harder than it sounds. And commercial diets, ever-evolving recommendations and conflicting information from every corner of the internet don't help.

Fortunately, science has your back. Reliable research and thorough studies have established some concrete facts about slimming down.

We spoke with Eric Krebill, MD, a specialist in bariatric and general surgery with Mercy Health Saint Mary’s in Grand Rapids, Michigan, who revealed some of the best research-backed weight loss secrets, and ways you can give them a try for yourself.

Say "No" To Elimination Diets

2 / 9 Say "No" To Elimination Diets

In a world of low-fat, low-carb and high-protein diets, it can be tough to determine the best way to lose weight. According to Krebill, diets like Atkins don’t promote long-term weight loss. Instead, he recommends eating a healthy balance of fruits, veggies, healthy fats, whole grains and proteins.

He’s not the only one. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that elimination diets limit your nutritional intake and aren’t usually successful for weight loss in the long run. Instead of banning food groups from your diet, make better choices:

  • Load half your plate with non-starchy veggies, like broccoli and asparagus.
  • Add a three-ounce serving of lean protein, like chicken or salmon, to your meal.
  • Pile on a serving of whole grains, like brown rice or quinoa.
  • Sweeten your meal with low-sugar fruits, like berries.
  • Enjoy moderate amounts of healthy fats, like olive oil and avocado.
Keep a Food Journal

3 / 9 Keep a Food Journal

“Weight loss itself really comes down to simple math—calories in versus calories out,” says Krebill. To lose weight, you must be in a calorie deficit, meaning you burn off more calories than you consume. An old rule of thumb: dropping one pound means torching about 3,500 calories. To do this in a week, you would consume 500 fewer calories a day—or burn that much during exercise.

Keeping track of your calories—in and out—can be harder than you think. Krebill has a solution: “We strongly advocate for food journaling, so patients can really understand what they're putting in their bodies."  

Research supports that recommendation. Results from one study of 1,700 people suggest those who kept a food diary lost twice as much weight as those who didn’t. Start your own food journal by taking handwritten notes on the foods you eat throughout the day, or download an app to help you keep track.   

Eat whole Foods

4 / 9 Eat whole Foods

When you’re looking to drop a dress size, you may be inclined to reach for the low-fat, low-carb or reduced-calorie options in your supermarket. These may not be best for losing pounds, since typical “weight loss” options often contain additives, like artificial sweeteners.

Instead, reach for whole foods, like fruits, veggies, lean protein and whole grains, which research suggests are best for weight loss. For example, when compared to refined grains like white rice and pasta, less-refined whole grains like quinoa and brown rice digest more slowly, keeping you fuller, longer. This makes whole grains better for dropping pounds.

Despite its caloric load, a moderate portion of nuts also helps with weight management. Research suggests noshing can sate hunger and help you eat less. Just keep it to one serving—24 almonds, 14 walnut halves or 35 peanuts.

Move more throughout the day

5 / 9 Move more throughout the day

Diet and exercise are both key to healthy weight loss—diet is the main driver of actually losing weight, while exercise is important in keeping pounds off for the long-term. “If you attempt to lose weight strictly by diet alone, without incorporating exercise, you're not going to typically be successful,” says Krebill. “It really is a total package—you have to be committed to both,” he adds.

A 2014 systemic review that included eight studies and more than 1,000 participants supports this. Researchers found, over a 12-month period, diet and exercise were more effective for weight loss and maintenance than either diet or exercise alone.

There are easy ways to incorporate exercise into your daily routine without spending hours at the gym. Krebill recommends getting the most movement out of the activities you enjoy. That way, being active becomes less of a chore.

In 30 minutes, a 155-pound person can burn:

  • 165 calories dancing
  • 165 calories doing yard work
  • 90 calories stretching
  • 255 calories swimming


plan healthy snacks

6 / 9 plan healthy snacks

No one wants to feel hungry, especially when you’re dieting. With healthy, well-planned snacks, you can stay satisfied and lose weight. “It's my opinion that eating when you’re hungry and when we know you should be getting those calories is important,” says Krebill, who recommends his patients eat between four and six smaller meals throughout the day.

Snacking between meals can help sate hunger and prevents binging at your next meal. In fact, research from the University of Massachusetts Medical School suggests people who eat more than three times per day actually weigh less than those who don’t. Mid-afternoon bites may also boost energy and give you the push you need to power through a workout.

Research on just how much meal frequency affects weight is conflicting, however, and snacking throughout the day may not be for everyone. If all-day eating is too much effort or you find yourself reaching for unhealthy snacks, stick to eating fewer meals a day.

One thing’s for sure: if you’re looking to slim down, meals, regardless of how frequently you eat them, should be moderately low in calories. Don’t blow your calorie goals by gorging at every meal. Diet-friendly snacks should be around 100 calories, contain fiber, protein and carbohydrates and be free of added sugar, salt and unhealthy fat.  

Healthy snack options include:

  • 2 Tbsp hummus and 1 cup of carrots
  • Fruit smoothie with 1 cup of berries and 1/2 cup nonfat milk
  • 1 small apple and low-fat string cheese 
Drink More Water

7 / 9 Drink More Water

If you’re looking to slim down, H2O may be just what your body needs.

Your body requires water to function correctly. We get some from the foods we eat, but drinking water is the best way to replenish the fluid we lose throughout the day. The exact amount of water your body needs depends on gender, activity level, climate and overall health. But, according to Krebill, “We tell most of our patients to drink a minimum of at least 64 ounces of water daily.”

One 2011 systemic review found that those who drank a sugar-sweetened beverage, like soda, before a meal consumed more calories than those who drank water. There’s a possible explanation: Calories from beverages—like the 140 calories in a 12-ounce can of cola—tend to be less satisfying than those from foods. Even after you’ve guzzled a glass of your favorite drink, it’s likely you’ll still consume a full meal.  

It’s also common to mistake a feeling of thirst for that of hunger. This makes us eat when we’re not actually hungry. Some, but not all, research suggests water actually fills your stomach, causing you to eat less at your next feeding. If you’re looking to slim down, before you reach for your next meal, pour yourself a glass of water.

For some, like those with kidney problems or who are taking a diuretic, it’s possible to get too much water. Speak with your doctor about how much water you should drink each day.   

Enjoy a Cheat Meal

8 / 9 Enjoy a Cheat Meal

You might not have to sacrifice your favorite foods to shed a few pounds. In fact, depriving yourself of your favorite treats may lead to unhealthy binges when cravings become overwhelming. This can really derail your diet.

Instead, eat the unhealthy stuff in moderation. Research suggests the occasional cheat meal may make for a more enjoyable weight loss journey. Results from a 2016 study of 36 individuals published in the Journal of Consumer Psychology suggests participants who ate a lower number of calories six days a week and splurged on the seventh we’re happier and more motivated than those who ate the same moderate number of calories for seven days, despite little difference in actual weight loss between the groups. 

Talk to Your Doctor

9 / 9 Talk to Your Doctor

Age, medication and health conditions can influence your ability to slim down. For example:

  • After about age 30, lean tissue is gradually replaced by fat, making weight loss more difficult.
  • Certain prescription drugs, like beta-blockers and antidepressants, can alter your metabolism, change the way your body absorbs nutrients and increase your appetite.
  • Diseases like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a disorder that causes an imbalance of hormones, can make shedding pounds harder.
  • Too much stress and too little sleep can boost your cravings for unhealthy eats.  

Sometimes, diet and exercise aren’t enough to counter these factors. If you’re struggling to lose weight, talk to your doctor about treatment for your conditions, new medication or even weight loss surgery. Surgery isn’t for everyone, but it may be a good option for those with obesity and obesity-related conditions—like type 2 diabetes or heart disease—who haven’t had success with diet and exercise. Results of several studies suggest, when compared with non-surgical weight loss treatments and therapies, bariatric surgery is more effective at reducing body weight and increasing the rate of remission for obese individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

There is no quick fix or miracle diet for weight loss, but these science-backed tips can help put you on the right track. A healthy diet, regular movement and advice from your healthcare provider are key components to a slimmer you.