Tuberculosis (TB)

Tuberculosis (TB)

Tuberculosis (TB)
Tuberculosis is a highly contagious bacterial infection of the lungs that can be spread through the air when a person speaks, coughs or sneezes. Also known as TB, symptoms of tuberculosis include fever, fatigue, chest pain and a severe, chronic cough. There are different types of TB, including active tuberculosis, and meningeal and milary TB, and doctors can screen for each of these types using the tuberculin skin test or the Mantoux test. Treatment of tuberculosis usually involves several types of antibiotics, and in rare cases, surgery.

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    ARealAge answered

    If you have no symptoms but need to be screened routinely for tuberculosis (TB), you will have a tuberculin skin test. The most accurate, and currently the only test recommended in the United States, is the purified protein derivative (PPD) test (Mantoux test). A small amount of protein derived from the TB bacteria is injected under the skin, usually on the forearm. Two to three days later, the injection site is checked for "reactivity" -- swelling plus redness. Redness alone is not a positive test. A positive test indicates exposure to tuberculosis, but not necessarily active infection, since most people naturally control the infection. To determine if there is active infection, a chest X-ray is done. If the chest X-ray indicates possible active infection, further studies are done to try to isolate the tuberculosis infection for confirmation and cultures and to guide antibiotic treatment decisions. A negative X-ray indicates the infection has been naturally controlled, but it can recur. Therefore, antibiotic treatment to try to eradicate any bacteria remaining in the body may be tried, depending on your individual risks for disease and for treatment. All antibiotic treatments require at least six months to complete.

    Once a PPD test is positive, it stays positive for life. Repeated testing in PPD positive persons is not done, since it can lead to intensely uncomfortable skin reactions. Certain high-risk persons may require repeated skin testing or special concentrated tests (Second Strength PPD).

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    Active tuberculosis: Active or pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can cause permanent lung damage when it is not diagnosed and treated early. Untreated active disease can also spread to other parts of the body where it can lead to serious or life-threatening complications. Individuals who think that they may have been exposed to TB or who have symptoms of TB should check with a doctor immediately.

    Meningeal and miliary TB: Meningeal TB, which occurs when TB infects the brain and central nervous system, and miliary TB,which occurs when TB bacteria spread throughout the entire body, are particularly dangerous forms of the disease. Children are especially susceptible to both meningeal TB and miliary TB.

    Recurrence: Recurrence, or the re-infection of TB bacteria, is the most serious complication of TB infection. The recurrence of TB after the initial infection can occur due to the development of drug-resistant strains of the disease in the individual's body.

    Increase in drug-resistant strains of TB: For each major TB medication, there is a TB strain (variant or slightly different TB bacterium than the normal) that resists its treatment. Even more dangerous are strains that are resistant to anti-TB drugs, such as rifampin (Rifadin) and isoniazid (Nydrazid), leading to a condition called multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Individuals with untreated MDR-TB are highly contagious and can transmit this serious type of TB to others, increasing the drug strains of TB that exist.

    You should read product labels, and discuss all therapies with a qualified healthcare provider. Natural Standard information does not constitute medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.



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    Probiotics: Limited evidence with day care children suggests supplementation with Lactobacillus GG may reduce number of sick days, frequency of respiratory tract infections, and frequency of related antibiotic treatments. Fermented milk (with yogurt cultures and L. casei DN-114001) may reduce the duration of respiratory infections in elderly people. More research is needed to make a firm conclusion.

    Probiotics are generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated. Avoid if allergic or hypersensitive to probiotics. Use cautiously if lactose intolerant. Caution is advised when using probiotics in neonates born prematurely or with immune deficiency.

    You should read product labels, and discuss all therapies with a qualified healthcare provider. Natural Standard information does not constitute medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.



    For more information visit https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/

    Copyright © 2014 by Natural Standard Research Collaboration. All Rights Reserved.

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    Researchers in CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Elimination and their partners in the TB Trials Consortium are at the forefront of the research that is striving to make the world free of TB (tuberculosis). They recently completed a 10-year study of an innovative preventive therapy regimen that will dramatically shorten treatment for persons with latent (inactive) TB infections. This course of preventive therapy is referred to as the 12-dose regimen and contains two very effective TB drugs, isoniazid and rifapentine. It is given once weekly for 12 weeks under directly observed therapy, which means that the swallowing of each dose of medicine is observed by a health worker.

    The concept of TB preventive therapy involves treating people who are infected with TB but who are not clinically ill. Doing so can prevent those infected persons from progressing to TB disease. Preventive therapy not only prevents disease and disability in that one person; it also prevents the spread of infection to others, some of whom would develop TB in the future and then spread the bacteria to their close contacts.

    The presence of the CDC logo and CDC content on this page should not be construed to imply endorsement by the US Government of any commercial products or services, or to replace the advice of a medical professional. The mark “CDC” is licensed under authority of the PHS.
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    World TB Day is observed annually on March 24 to educate the public that TB (tuberculosis) remains a problem in much of the world, with much more needed to prevent, control, and eventually eliminate this devastating disease. This day provides an opportunity to raise awareness about TB-related problems and solutions, and to support worldwide TB-control efforts.

    The presence of the CDC logo and CDC content on this page should not be construed to imply endorsement by the US Government of any commercial products or services, or to replace the advice of a medical professional. The mark “CDC” is licensed under authority of the PHS.
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    Tuberculosis, also called TB, is one of the world's deadliest diseases and has been affecting people for thousands of years. It's estimated that 2 billion people -- one third of the people in the world -- are infected with M. tuberculosis. Each year, nearly 9 million people in the world become sick with TB disease, and almost 1.5 million deaths are attributed to TB. While the number of TB cases in the United States has been declining since 1993, there remains a higher-than-normal burden of TB among racial and ethnic minorities. This is due to unequal distribution of TB risk factors that can increase the chance of developing the disease.

    The presence of the CDC logo and CDC content on this page should not be construed to imply endorsement by the US Government of any commercial products or services, or to replace the advice of a medical professional. The mark “CDC” is licensed under authority of the PHS.
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    If you have active tuberculosis (TB), you should only receive emergency dental care in a hospital. You should not visit the dental office for routine dental care because you pose the risk of infecting your dentist, dental hygienist and people in the waiting room.

    If your tuberculosis is inactive, you can have dental treatment with no special considerations.
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    A Dr. Susie Whitworth, PhD, Nursing, answered
    Primary tuberculosis occurs in someone who has not had previous contact with the bacilus that causes tuberculosis. In most people, the infection lays latent, but can become active and develop into active tuberculosis at any time.
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    AAmerican Red Cross answered

    If you have active tuberculosis or are being treated for active tuberculosis you should not donate. You could donate if you have a positive skin test, but no active tuberculosis, or if you are receiving antibiotics for a positive TB skin test only. If you are being treated for a tuberculosis infection, wait until treatment is successfully completed before donating.

    Guidelines on eligibility to give blood change from time to time. The most up-to-date eligibility information can be obtained by contacting the American Red Cross blood center nearest you.

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    A positive tuberculosis skin test may mean you are infected with tuberculosis (TB) bacteria. In a TB skin test, a tiny amount of a substance known as tuberculin is injected under the skin of your forearm. Within 72 hours, a red lump should form if you are infected with TB. However, false-positive skin tests can occur, so you may need follow-up tests.

    If it turns out you are infected with TB bacteria, that doesn't necessarily mean you have active tuberculosis disease. In fact, most people who become infected never develop active TB at all. The bacteria stay dormant, in a non-contagious condition known as latent tuberculosis. However, if your immune system weakens, the bacteria can flare up into active TB.