1 AnswerHealthy Humans answeredVitrectomy was first introduced in the 1970s as a mechanical technique to removed the vitreous fluid after bleeding that would not subside. By the introduction of fine needle like instruments through one millimeter openings in the sclera (white of the eye), debris hemorrhage scar or membranes can be peeled and removed while simultaneously being replaced with saline fluids.This dramatic surgical technique has enabled people with some retinal scars, hemorrhages, retinal detachments, and retinal tears to recover vision, sometimes completely. The newest edition may require the introduction of gas or silicone oil to expand the retina back into position. Laser photocoagulation can be placed internally to seal a hole at the same time.Larger tears in the retina can be treated with an application of cold nitrogen outside of the eye to accomplish the same thing.
So people who encounter proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and who do not respond to the usual treatment of panretinal photocoagulation may require a vitrectomy as an outpatient under local anesthesia. The indications for victrectomy would be:
- Vitreous hemorrhage
- Traction retinal detachment
- Vision loss from distortion of the macula
- Membrane formation
- Opacified vitreous scars
- Progressive proliferative diabetic retinopathy
The future for patients with diabetes may include beta cell transplants so that these patients can make insulin on their own and become self regulatory. Studies in rats have shown that a particular protein delivered intravenously has turned on insulin production after the rat pancreas had thought to be obliterated. For now diabetic patients should maintain an annual examination and control their blood sugar as best as possible. Giving up the cookies and the high glycemic indexed foods is less of a sacrifice than what can happen down the road.
1 AnswerPatients rarely require drains after adrenal surgery; however, if the surgeon thinks it is necessary, an abdominal drain will be placed. Drains are more often required after open adrenalectomy than after laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Drains are relatively easy to take care of, and the output is recorded on a daily basis. Once the output decreases to a certain level, the drain will be removed. Removal of the drain is not particularly painful. It is more of a strange sensation. In general, the drain will be removed several days after surgery.
For more information go the endocrinediseases.org: Adrenal Glands: How is adrenal surgery performed?
1 AnswerDr. Lauren Streicher, MD , Gynecology, answered
1 AnswerDr. David M. Vernick, MD , Ear, Nose & Throat (Otolaryngology), answeredMyringotomy is a simple outpatient procedure performed mainly on children who have persistent fluid buildup in the middle ear (the space between the outer ear and the inner ear that contains the three ossicles, or bones, involved in hearing), usually because of recurrent ear infections that don't respond well to antibiotics. The opening usually persists for a week or two. If the opening needs to last longer, an otolaryngologist or otologist (doctor who specializes in treating ear problems) inserts a ventilation tube into the eardrum to drain fluid from the middle ear at the time of surgery . The tubes are left in place for six to 18 months and then usually are extruded by the ear.
1 AnswerAurora Health Care answeredTalc pleurodesis is a palliative treatment. The goal of these treatments is to improve your level of comfort and quality of life. The talc pleurodesis procedure removes fluid from around your lung (pleurodesis) and prevents it from coming back. A small cut is made in the skin of the chest wall, and a hollow tube (chest tube) is placed into the chest to remove the fluid. Talc is then instilled into the chest cavity. This causes the linings of the lung (pleura) to stick together, sealing the space and preventing further fluid buildup.
1 AnswerParaesophageal hernia and intrathoracic stomach may be complicated when a short esophagus pulls upward on the stomach. In Collis-Nissen gastroplasty, the surgeon uses the upper portion of the stomach to extend the esophagus and ease this tension. Our team routinely uses minimally invasive laparoscopy to perform this procedure, which was traditionally performed through a major chest incision.
1 AnswerReston Hospital Center answered
In some cases of rectal cancer, you will need a colostomy as part of treatment. A colostomy is a procedure in which your doctor forms and opening in your abdominal wall and attaches the end of your large intestine to this opening to remove waste. Your doctor will also remove the part of your rectum that is infected with cancer. If your doctor is able to leave the end of the rectum in tact, this can usually be rejoined with the end of the large intestine, and you will not have to live with a colostomy permanently. However, when rectal cancer grows very close to the anus and the end of the rectum has to be removed, a colostomy can be a permanent solution.
2 AnswersDr. Brian J. Broker, MD , Ear, Nose & Throat (Otolaryngology), answered"Septoplasty" is the surgical straightening of the septum, the piece that divides the nose internally into a left and right side. It is unusual for nasal congestion to be due to a deviated septum alone. More often, allergies and the resulting swollen nasal tissues play a role along with a deviated septum.
In our office, nasal surgery is usually done in conjunction with an allergy evaluation to maximize the normal function of the nose after surgery.
1 AnswerJohns Hopkins Medicine answered
If you touch behind your ear, you will feel a hard bony bump called the mastoid bone.
The mastoid bone is filled with spaces for air and works as a backup supply of air for the middle ear. Rarely, ear infections may spread to the mastoid. This is called mastoiditis. A mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure designed to remove or drain mastoid infections or remove growths such as cholesteatoma in the mastoid bone.