Lung Disease and Respiratory System

Lung Disease and Respiratory System

Lung Disease and Respiratory System
Diseases, pollutants and genetics can affect your respiratory health. The simple cold - which is caused by more than 200 different viruses - inflames the upper respiratory tract, resulting in a cough, runny nose and sneezing. A more severe cough combined with mucus is a sign of bronchitis, where the membranes lining the bronchial tubes become inflamed. The inflammatory lung disease asthma affects more than 20 million people, making airways constrict when exposed to irritants like dust, pet dander and cigarette smoke. Pneumonia, another inflammation of the lungs, can occur because of a bacterial or viral infection. People suffering from cystic fibrosis, an inherited lung disease, frequently battle bacterial infections and airways clogged with thick and sticky mucus.

Recently Answered

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    BPD is the form of chronic lung disease that develops in premature infants. The damage that immature lungs sustain when they are mechanically ventilated can lead to this form of severe lung disease. Transplantation may be necessary to treat BPD.

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    Altitude Pulmonary Edema has a number of symptoms. It is a good idea to descend immediately and seek medical attention if you are experiencing two or more of these symptoms:

    • Shortness of breath, while resting
    • Persistent coughing
    • Lack of strength
    • Experiencing tightness in the chest

    You also should be aware that people with HAPE sometimes develop a fever, make a gurgling sound while they're breathing, or find it extremely uncomfortable to lie flat on the ground.

    If you are suffering from advanced symptoms of HAPE, you likely will be unable to descend under your own power. You probably will need help. It is good to get help because HAPE can result in high blood pressure which only gets worse through too much physical exertion.

    The most important thing is to get to a lower altitude as soon as you can. This condition is so serious that even with medical treatment, there is a 10 to 15 percent chance it will result in death.

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    A Internal Medicine, answered on behalf of
    Bronchiolitis is a lung infection caused by a virus.  The average age of children who get it is about 6 months upper age limit is 2 years old.
    Symptoms include wheezing which is a high pitched whistling sound, fast breathing that may involve retractions which is the chest wall moving in and out with breathing as the patient  trys to get more air.  More severe symptoms may include tight breathing trouble moving air trying to push air out.Cough is a predominant symptom.  One of the classic symptoms  in the case of bronchiolitis caused by RSV(Respiratory Syncytial Virus) is a profuse clear runny nose.  It commonly presents with fever.

    The physiology of bronchiolitis is the virus causing inflammation(swelling) of the smallest airways in the lung and causing them to narrow which makes the patient wheeze.
    The virus is found in the nasal secretions of infected people.  Sneezing or coughing can spread it to close contacts.  It is also spread by hands after touching the nose or eyes.

    Infection can be recurrent as one does not develop permanent immunity.

    Illness can be mild, moderate or severe.  It may require hospitalization but often can be managed at home.  Severe symptoms average 2-3days overall wheezing about one week but cough can persist for about 2 weeks.

    The most common complication is ear infection approximately 20% of children.
    Bacterial pnuemonia is an uncommon complication.
    Less than 5 % of children require hospitalization

    Treatment includes

    Humidity.Dry air aggravates cough, humidifier is helpful
    Encourage child to drink lots of fluids
    Saline nasal suctioning of blocked nose
    Avoid exposure to smoke
    Warm fluids relieve coughing spasms by relaxing the airway and loosening secretions as does breathing warm ,moist air
    Some children with bronchiolitis benefit from astma type medicines such as nebulizer treatments.
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    Pleural cavity disorders typically affect the body by impairing breathing. These disorders include pleurisy, pleural effusion, pleural tumors, pneumothorax, and hemothorax. The pleura are thin layers of tissue that line the outside of the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity. There is a thin space between these layers that is known as the pleural cavity. Normally, there is a small amount of fluid in the pleural layers. This keeps them lubricated and helps you breathe in and out. When fluid or gas of some form gets in this cavity, or if infection or cancer or inflammation occurs, then pleural cavity disorders develop. These disorders nearly always impact the body by causing breathing difficulty and pain.
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    A , Internal Medicine, answered
    Epiglottitis is a whopping bacterial infection that comes out firing all guns. You'll have a very sick-looking kid with a high fever sitting forward in what we call tripod position -- leaning forward with his body, both hands leaning on a table or bed in front of him -- looking anxious because somehow, intuitively, he knows his airway might close at any second. This happens when the epiglottis, the part of the throat that closes when you swallow so food doesn't get into your lungs, becomes infected. If he looks like this, get him to a pediatric emergency room immediately. Epiglottitis is life threatening, which is why we strongly recommend the Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) vaccine, which protects against its most severe varieties.
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    Immediate descent is the best treatment for high-altitude pulmonary edema. This is of the utmost urgency and should not be delayed until morning, as delay may be fatal. If oxygen is available it should be administered as well. People with high-altitude pulmonary edema usually survive if they descend soon enough and far enough, and usually recover completely.
    (This answer provided for NATA by the Marist College Athletic Training Education Program.)
  • 2 Answers
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    A , Ear, Nose & Throat (Otolaryngology), answered
    What causes a chronic cough?
    A chronic cough (lasting more than two weeks) may be caused by lung issues, post-nasal drip, sinus infections, acid reflux caused by poor diet/stress or asthma. Watch as ENT surgeon Moshe Ephrat, MD, explains the various causes and what you can do.
    See All 2 Answers
  • 3 Answers
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    Bronchiectasis results from the destruction of small airways in the lungs. The airways dilate and do not function properly leading to recurrent infections. Several pulmonary diseases and infections can cause bronchiectasis. Damage caused by this disease can be so severe as to require a lung transplant.

    See All 3 Answers
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    Pleural cavity disorders include pleurisy, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and hemothorax, and each disorder has various causes. The main cause of pleurisy tends to be viral infection. Pleural effusion (fluid buildup in the pleural cavity) is most often caused by congestive heart failure. Pneumothorax (air in the pleural cavity) is usually caused by lung injury or disease (tuberculosis, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Hemothorax (blood in the pleural cavity) typically is caused by injury, surgery, or cancer.

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    In most cases, pleural cavity disorders cannot be prevented. They are caused by a variety of things including injury, infection, and illness. The only exceptions are when you are treated for the underlying medical cause for one of these disorders. For example, if the underlying cause is pneumonia, it can be prevented by vaccination. If the underlying cause is rheumatic fever, early and effective treatment for strep throat could have prevented the pleural cavity disorder.