Developmental Disorders

Developmental Disorders

Developmental Disorders
When a child is born with a developmental disability, sometimes called a birth defect, it means there is a chronic condition that will be a life-long challenge. Down syndrome; autism; and language, learning, vision or hearing problems are a few developmental disabilities. While these disabilities are typically present at birth, they can begin at any time up to age 22.

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    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about one in six children in the US have at least one developmental disability or delay. Developmental disabilities are conditions that are due to problems with physical development, learning, language or behavior. Some examples are: autism spectrum disorder, hearing loss, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, Tourette's syndrome and vision loss. These problems can impact a child's daily activities and life. The disability and impact may also last into adulthood. Talk to your pediatrician about screening, diagnosis and treatment. Many schools also offer critical resources, from screening to day-to-day classroom and learning support.
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    A , Health Education, answered
    To add to what Challenge America says (and great tips, by the way) I would just add that in my experience the person with the disability will let you know what they can or cannot do - let him or her lead. If they can shake your hand, they will put their hand/elbow/finger/prosthetic out to shake yours. Don't assume a blind person needs help walking - ask first verbally, if you think they might. (Except in a case where the person is in danger.) People with disabilities are used to asking for assistance, and will do so if they need it. For a deaf person, speak clearly but there's no need to over-enunciate; most of us are very good at lip-reading, even from the side. Hope this helps. Happy to answer any specific questions too.
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    Apraxia is a neurological disorder that makes people unable to carry out familiar movements when asked to do so. People with apraxia understand what they are being asked to do, and are willing to do it, but cannot physically perform the task, despite being strong enough to do so.
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    A Psychology, answered on behalf of
    Treatment for apraxia should mainly consist of speech and occuational therapy by a qualified specialist who has experience working with apraxic children. Children with apraxia will generally improve with numerous speech therapy sessions weekly and repeating the same words/concepts numerous times in order for the brain connections to occur.
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    A Psychology, answered on behalf of
    With proper treatment and early intervention, the prognosis for children with apraxia can be very high. Most children can learn how to speak effectively and clearly, although some who are severly affected may not.
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    Developmental dyspraxia is a disorder characterized by impairment in the ability to plan and carry out sensory and motor tasks. Generally, individuals with the disorder appear "out of sync" with their environment. Symptoms vary and may include poor balance and coordination, clumsiness, vision problems, perception difficulties, emotional and behavioral problems, poor social skills, poor posture, poor short-term memory, and difficulty in reading, writing, and speaking. Although individuals with the disorder may be of average or above average intelligence, they may behave immaturely.

    This information is based on source information from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

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    Developmental dyspraxia is a lifelong disorder. Many individuals are able to compensate for their disabilities through occupational and speech therapy.

    This answer is based on source information from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

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    Treatment is symptomatic and supportive and may include occupational and speech therapy and "cueing" or other forms of communication such as using pictures and hand gestures. Many children with the disorder require special education.

    This answer is based on source information from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

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    Some children with language impairments have problems expressing themselves in speech. Their disorder is called, therefore, a developmental expressive language disorder. A child who often calls objects by the wrong names has an expressive language disorder. Of course, an expressive language disorder can take other forms. A 4-year-old who speaks only in two-word phrases and a 6-year-old who can't answer simple questions also have an expressive language disability.
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    Some people have trouble understanding certain aspects of speech. It's as if their brains are set to a different frequency and the reception is poor. There's the toddler who doesn't respond to his name, a preschooler who hands you a bell when you asked for a ball, or the worker who consistently can't follow simple directions. Their hearing is fine, but they can't make sense of certain sounds, words, or sentences they hear. They may even seem inattentive. These people have a receptive language disorder. Because using and understanding speech are strongly related, many people with receptive language disorders also have an expressive language disability.
    Of course, in preschoolers, some misuse of sounds, words, or grammar is a normal part of learning to speak. It's only when these problems persist that there is any cause for concern.