Why So Many People Are Going Gluten-Free—Should You?

Gluten-intolerance symptoms have many people re-thinking their diets.

A cutting board with the word "gluten" crossed out, surrounded by coconut and other foods for people going gluten-free.

Medically reviewed in October 2021

If you've ever polished off a fresh baguette or fought over that last slice of deep-dish pizza, you've eaten gluten. It's the healthy plant protein found in several grains that, among other baking feats, makes bread light, chewy and irresistible. So, you'd think it would be everybody's favorite nutrient. Nope. Instead, shunning gluten—it's in wheat, rye and barley, and often in oats—has become the diet of the moment. 

Why? Lots of people swear they feel 10 times better by going gluten-free, ; Gwyneth Paltrow and Rachel Weisz are among those rumored to be gluten-free. Also, for certain people, avoiding gluten is a medical must: It does a number on their intestines.  

So, could all those stomach cramps be caused by your morning bagel? Should you try going gluten-free? Here's the real what's what: 

Some people can't eat gluten. Period. In them, gluten triggers an immune-system attack on the small intestine, also known as celiac disease. This disorder isn't that common, fortunately—only about 1 percent of Americans (3 million people) have it—but almost 97 percent of them are undiagnosed! Symptoms range from gas, pain, and bloating to fatigue, seizures and depression. Over time, celiac disease can screw up digestion to the point of malnutrition. Self-test kits are sold online and can provide clues, and blood tests are the next step, but a definitive diagnosis requires a biopsy. 

Some people seem sensitive to gluten. But "gluten sensitivity," sometimes called gluten intolerance, is a medical gray area. There are no tests for it, and although problems—migraines, skin breakouts, irritability even autism—have been blamed on it, doctors haven't found a clear link. If you suspect you're sensitive, before you put your toaster and pasta machine on eBay, try this: Go gluten-free for a few weeks to see if symptoms improve; then, add a bit of gluten back into your diet. If problems return, you may be on to something. 

How to try going gluten-free
Most suspicious foods are easy to spot. They include anything with wheat—bread, muffins, cookies, most other baked goods—as well as foods made with several other grains: barley soups, ham on rye, anything with oats. But there are hidden sources, too. Gluten is used in soy sauce, beer, hot dogs, some ice creams, caramel flavoring, sausages and foods seasoned with MSG. It's even in the adhesive on stamps and envelopes! So, take a few other steps: 

  • Read the fine print on labels. Switch from pasta to rice, wheat cereal to corn flakes, couscous to quinoa, waffles to buckwheat pancakes (buckwheat isn’t actually wheat). 
  • Give waiters the third degree. (They're getting used to it.) Ask if sauces, meat and fish dishes are made with flour or bread crumbs. Ask if there's a thickener in soup, if the salad dressing is bottled or if caramel flavorings are used. All are iffy. 
  • Make your favorite brownies using half rice flour and half tapioca flour. Dare your friends to know the difference. 

Then, see how you feel. If your body has happily shifted into a new health gear, enjoy.

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