Major Depressive Disorder and Exercise

Learn how regular exercise and physical activity can help support your treatment plan for major depressive disorder.

Medically reviewed in July 2022

Exercise is prescribed for a wide variety of health conditions–from heart disease to diabetes. Science shows that being active can improve your physical and mental health and make positive changes in your brain chemistry, but if you're battling major depression, the thought of working out may seem unthinkable. Here's some information about the benefits of exercise that may change your mind.

Exercise and Nerve Growth
Early brain chemistry research found that mice living in an exercise-friendly environment stopped acting depressed after a stressful social experience, while mice who didn't exercise stayed depressed. Scientists attribute the mice's recovery to the growth of new brain nerves caused by exercise. This and other research has led scientists to understand how brain nerve growth works in humans, too. Adults affect their brain chemistry through experiences, such as physical activities, and how they respond to them. The proteins largely responsible for the brain's ability to adapt and change are called neurotrophins. Antidepressants affect neurotrophins in the brain, and so does exercise.

Benefits of Exercise Therapy for Depression
In addition to stimulating new nerve growth and improving your ability to think, remember, and learn, exercise boosts serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and endorphins in your brain. These neurotransmitters help you calm down and focus. In studies, exercise therapy has also shown an antidepressant effect.

One Duke University researcher, James Blumenthal, PhD, has been studying exercise and major depression for more than a decade. "Based on the best available evidence to date," Dr. Blumenthal believes that "exercise may be generally comparable to medication in the treatment of MDD." Similar studies continue to find at least modest clinical benefit for exercise and better mental health. Talk to your doctor about treatment and self-care options -- including exercise -- that are right for you. Don't self-treat your depression symptoms or try to get through your recovery with exercise alone.

Adding Exercise to Your Treatment Plan
Once you start exercising, you're likely to notice some changes in your symptoms right away. "Simply moving more and sitting less will make a difference in how you feel," says exercise physiologist and dietitian Amy Ogle, MS, RD. "If you typically exercise alone, consider working out with a group or partner because the social connection helps lessen depressive symptoms."

Shoot for at least 2 1/2 hours of exercise in a week. Strength training counts toward that time, too. Just remember to check with your doctor first, especially if you have another medical condition.

"Sticking to a plan and following your progress will renew your sense of self-mastery and control," Ogle adds. You can progress to the following routine:

  • Warm up for 5 to 10 minutes, gently moving your upper and lower body in full range of motion.
  • Do 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, such as walking, light jogging, swimming, biking, or a group exercise class. You should be able to talk, but not comfortably sing.
  • Cool down and stretch for 5 minutes.

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