Relationship Abuse

Relationship Abuse

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    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a type of inflicted traumatic brain injury that happens when a baby is violently shaken. A baby has weak neck muscles and a large, heavy head. Shaking makes the fragile brain bounce back and forth inside the skull and causes bruising, swelling, and bleeding, which can lead to permanent, severe brain damage or death. The characteristic injuries of SBS are subdural hemorrhages (bleeding in the brain), retinal hemorrhages (bleeding in the retina), damage to the spinal cord and neck, and fractures of the ribs and bones. These injuries may, however, not be immediately noticeable. Symptoms of SBS include extreme irritability, lethargy, poor feeding, breathing problems, convulsions, vomiting, and pale or bluish skin. Shaken baby injuries usually occur in children younger than two years of age, but may be seen in children up to the age of five.

    This Answer is based on source information from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

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    Emergency treatment for a baby who has been shaken usually includes life-sustaining measures, such as respiratory support and surgery to stop internal bleeding. Doctors may use brain scans, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), to make a more definite diagnosis.

    This answer is based on source information from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokes.

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    As compared to accidental traumatic brain injury in infants, shaken baby injuries have fewer chances of recovery. Damage to the retina of the eye can cause blindness. The majority of infants who survive severe shaking will have some form of neurological or mental disability, such as cerebral palsy or mental retardation, which may not be fully apparent before six years of age. Children with SBS may require lifelong medical care.

    This answer is based on source information from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strokes.

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    Generally speaking, the Stockholm syndrome process as seen in a kidnapping or hostage situation looks like this narrative involving a male captor and a female hostage:

    A person finds herself held captive by a man who is threatening to kill her if she disobeys him. She may be abused and having trouble thinking straight. Escape, the captor says, is not an option - she, and perhaps her family, will end up dead. Her only chance to survive is obedience.

    As time passes, obedience alone may become less of a sure thing - the captor is under increasing stress, and a change in his mood could mean harm to his prisoner. Figuring out the triggers of her captor's violence so she can avoid them becomes another survival strategy. In this way, she gets to know her captor.

    A minor act of kindness by the captor, which can include simply not yet killing the prisoner, positions the captor as the prisoner's savior. In these traumatic, life-threatening circumstances, the prisoner views the slightest act of kindness - or the sudden absence of violence - as a sign of friendship in an otherwise hostile, terrifying world. The prisoner clings to it desperately.

    The captor slowly seems less threatening - more an instrument of protection and survival than of harm. The prisoner undergoes what some call an act of self-delusion: To survive psychologically as well as physically, and to lessen the unimaginable stress of the situation, the prisoner begins to truly believe that the captor is her friend, that he won't kill her, that they can help each other "get out of this mess." The people on the outside trying to rescue her seem less like her allies and more like a threat to this person who is protecting her from harm. The fact that this person is also the source of the potential harm is buried in the process of self-delusion.

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    Brainwashing and Stockholm syndrome are closely related effects of abnormal power relationships. In the case of publishing heiress Patricia Hearst, who was kidnapped in the early 1970s by the political extremist group Symbionese Liberation Army, experts have cited both Stockholm syndrome and brainwashing as potential reasons for her actions.

    After Hearst was locked in a closet and severely abused for weeks, she joined the SLA, changed her name, became fianc with one of its members and was caught robbing a bank with the group. But after the police arrested members of SLA and Hearst was returned to her family, she reversed her position. Instead of defending the SLA and holding police officers in contempt, she distanced herself from the group and condemned their actions.

    It's possible that what Hearst experienced was neither true brainwashing nor Stockholm syndrome, but instead was a series of choices she made consciously that were designed to ensure her survival.

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    A , Geriatric Medicine, answered
    Neglect is defined as the refusal by the worker to fulfill his or her obligations to the resident of a nursing home. It includes failing to give necessary care such as food, water, fresh clothing, personal hygiene, medicine, safety or even comfort. Abandonment is the desertion of a nursing home resident by a nursing home worker who has assumed responsibility for providing care for the resident in question.
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    A , Geriatric Medicine, answered

    Elder neglect can manifest itself in many different forms, ranging from the mental to the physical. An example of elder neglect by a caregiver is not bathing them as needed, not giving them their medication as needed etc. Neglecting an elder is punishable by law as it is considered to be a form of abuse. There is also elder self-neglect in which the individual does not properly take care of themselves. An example of elder self-neglect in not taking prescriptions as prescribed, not eating when hungry and not tending to the activities of daily living as they should. 

    It is important to recognize that neglect can be both intentional and non-intentional. If you feel that someone is being neglected it is important to contact local authorities so that they can protect the elder.

     

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    A Nursing, answered on behalf of

    The types of intimate partner abuse that can occur during pregnancy include emotional, physical, sexual, and financial.

    Emotional abuse includes name-calling, belittling, insulting, and making the person who is being abused feel worthless, which lowers self-esteem.

    Physical abuse can also take many forms, including slapping, pushing, kicking, and punching.

    Sexual abuse is any unwanted sexual contact which includes forcing the person who is being abused to have sex.

    Financial abuse occurs when the person who is the abuser controls all the finances. Actions that constitute financial abuse can include withholding money for basic needs or not letting the partner who is being abused work.

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    A Nursing, answered on behalf of

    Intimate partner abuse is an encompassing term that can include physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. Women who are pregnant are at higher risk of being abused. If a woman is already being abused and becomes pregnant, the abuse can escalate.

    Screening for abuse should occur at every prenatal visit. The screening can be as simple as asking whether the woman feels safe in the relationship she's in. If a screening is positive for abuse, referrals to community resources, such as shelters and counseling can be made.

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    A Geriatrics Nursing, answered on behalf of

    Absolutely! A current CBC Radio program is called 'White coat, black art'. It focuses on various aspects of the health care industry. Recently, the topic was 'Nurse bullying". Even those who have been taught about therapeutic skills, the use of self as therapy and are motivated by a desire to help others bully their own kind. In fact, the common saying is that "nurses eat their young". Kathleen Bartholomew is an author and expert in the USA on workplace bullying by nurses.

    The health care industry is not alone. I suspect that private industry is less tolerant of bullying because it impacts the bottom line through higher staff turnover and lost productivity. However, bureaucracies are a different matter because they are not driven by making a profit. They are driven by staying within budget and that puts its own kind of pressure on staff and managers. That pressure acts as a legitimization for bullies in positions of responsibility.

    Bullying in all arenas of life, including the workplace, robs society of everyone's full contributions. It costs the country, the industry and individuals who are verbally and mentally damaged by bullies.