Pharmacology

Pharmacology

Pharmacology
Pharmaceuticals (prescription drugs, medications, supplements) are chemicals used to treat, cure and prevent diseases. Learn more about pharmaceuticals from our experts.

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    NRTI stands for Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. It refers to a group of drugs that are active against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This medicine taken as part of a HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) treatment plan. NRTIs will slow the growth of HIV in the body of an infected person. The medicines that slow the growth of the virus do not protect an HIV positive person from spreading the virus. Talk with your doctor or healthcare provider about how you can live with HIV.

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    Potassium acetate, if not properly administered and monitored, could lead to potassium intoxication. If you become intoxicated, you may experience weakness, mental confusion, tingling in the hands and feet, heart arrhythmias (irregular beats), low blood pressure, heart blocks, abnormal electrocardiographic (EKG) changes and cardiac arrest. Inform your doctor immediately if you experience any such side effects. You might also experience less serious side effects, including upset stomach, nausea and vomiting.
     
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    Will I need to take an antidepressant for the rest of my life?

    About half of depression patients who are successfully treated with an antidepressant can go off it under a doctor's care. Some patients may need to take them for the long term, Tarique Perera, MD, a psychiatrist with Contemporary Care of Connectcut.

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    How do you decide which type of antidepressant to prescribe?

    There are no tests to determine which type of antidepressant a doctor should prescribe for a patient with depression. In this video, Tarique Perera, MD, a psychiatrist with Contemporary Care of Connecticut, explains how antidepessants are chosen.

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    Depression is a disease that includes the emotional feelings of sadness and lack of interest but also involves physical problems including sleep, appetite, energy, and concentration disturbances, to name a few. Another key difference in someone suffering from depression rather than the normal feelings of sadness is the impact of your depression on your ability to function day to day. If your antidepressant is working, you should notice these symptoms of depression lifting. If you find yourself sleeping or eating too little or too much while depressed, these should return to your normal patterns. If you have a problem with energy or concentration, these should improve. Most importantly, any impact your depression has on your motivation, interest and ability to function at home, school or work should return to your normal. Certainly, any thoughts of wanting to die or suicide should completely go away.

    While sleep, appetite, energy and concentration problems can all be a result of depression, there may be other reasons why you are having these problems. Antidepressant therapy will not improve those if not caused by depression. Most importantly, antidepressants are not “happy pills.” If you have good reasons to be sad, anxious or angry, you should still feel those emotions. The only difference is that they should be in proportion to the stressors triggering those feelings. Talk with your healthcare provider when starting antidepressant treatment to make sure you understand what to look for to know if your medication is not working as it should. 
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    Side effects of Aci-Jel include: occasional cases of minor vaginal stinging, burning or irritation. If you develop an allergic reaction or have continued pain, stinging or burning, you should contact your doctor. Signs of an allergic reaction include: a skin rash, hives and swelling of the face, lip and tongue. If you experience these symptoms, seek immediate medical treatment.

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    Aci-Jel should not be used by children, pregnant women or nursing mothers unless prescribed by a doctor. The use of this medication in children may require special care. Aci-Jel is typically prescribed for adult and adolescent women, to achieve and maintain appropriate vaginal acidity (pH). Maintaining normal vaginal pH is thought to help prevent fungal infections. Aci-Jel is not for men.

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    Aci-Jel is a vaginal jelly used to balance the pH (acidity) in the vagina. Aci-Jel is a brand-name product that contains acetic acid, oxyquinoline and ricinoleic acid as its active ingredients. Aci-Jel may be used alone or in combination with other medications to treat yeast and fungal infections. It does this by making the vaginal environment unfavorable to fungal organisms. Aci-Jel is a prescription medication intended for intra-vaginal use only. The brand Aci-Jel is not available in the US at this time.

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    Before using Aci-Jel you should notify your doctor of any allergies you may have, especially to acetic acid (vinegar), oxyquinoline, ricinoleic acid, eggs and other foods, dyes or preservatives. Additionally, Aci-Jel may interfere with the integrity of the latex or rubber in birth control devices, such as latex condoms, vaginal contraceptive diaphragms, vaginal rings or cervical caps. It can also interfere with the activity of spermicides. This can increase the chances of pregnancy. While using this medication you should not use tampons. Aci-Jel is only for intravaginal use and should never be taken orally or come into contact with your eyes.

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    Aci-Jel may interact with spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 or octoxynol. In particular, Aci-Jel may reduce the effectiveness of spermicides, so you should discuss with your doctor how to prevent pregnancy while using Aci-Jel. Other harmful food and drug interactions have not been reported for Aci-Jel.