Metabolic Disorders

Metabolic Disorders

Your metabolism uses chemicals to break down food you eat into sugars and acids. These sugars and acids can provide you with immediate energy, or this energy can be stored in your tissues. Metabolic disorders damage your body by hurting your ability to get energy from food. Your metabolism is also involved in eliminating waste from your body, circulating blood and controlling body temperature. Metabolic disorders are caused by defective genes, often inherited, that disrupt metabolism. Early diagnosis is helpful in most effectively treating a metabolic disorder. There have been advances in the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic disorders. There are thousands of metabolic disorders with a wide array of symptoms and treatments. See your doctor with any questions about metabolic disorders.

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    A Nutrition & Dietetics, answered on behalf of
    The effects of dehydration can be serious. The more water our body loses, the more our mental capacity drops. Mild dehydration can cause the same effects as being over the drunk-driving limit in terms of driver errors. Researchers studied the driving patterns of males over two days using a simulated driving program. The drivers who were fully hydrated had 47 traffic incidents . When they were dehydrated, the traffic incidents spiked to 101 -- more than double. 
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    Lipid disorders are a group of conditions characterized by abnormal levels of fatty substances in the blood called lipoproteins and triglycerides. Also called "dyslipidemias," common lipid disorders include:
    • too high levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) known as the "lousy" or "bad" cholesterol because it contributes to the formation of plaque in your arteries, raising your risk for heart attack and stroke.
    • too low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) known as the "healthy" or "good" cholesterol because it helps to sweep cholesterol out of the blood vessels, reducing plaque build-up and lowering heart attack or stroke risk.
    • too high levels of triglycerides, a type of fat found in your blood that can also raise heart attack and stroke risk.
    In some people lipid disorders are inherited. Other people may develop them because they have one or more of the following risk factors for lipid disorders.
    • They have diabetes.
    • They smoke.
    • They are overweight or obese.
    • They have high blood pressure.
    • They have a family history of cardiovascular disease or a personal history of atherosclerosis (plaque build-up in the arteries).
    Having blood tests to check your cholesterol levels according to your doctor's recommendations can help detect a lipid disorder if you develop one. Lipid disorders can be treated with lifestyle changes and/or the use of cholesterol-lowering medicines.
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    A answered
    Veltassa (patiromer) is a medication called a potassium binder, used for the treatment of hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia is an overabundance of potassium in the blood, usually caused by kidney problems (often drugs that affect kidney function) or an overdose of potassium supplement. This can cause heart problems, even cardiac arrest. Veltassa binds to the excess potassium and helps the body eliminate it. Veltassa can also bind to other oral medications and make them ineffective, so it should be given at least 6 hours after and 6 hours before any other drug taken by mouth. Veltassa has a delayed onset, meaning it is not useful as an emergency overdose medication. Side effects may include constipation, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain, magnesium deficiency, and gas. Veltassa is prescribed in packets of powder that should be refrigerated before use; it should be mixed into cool water to dissolve and taken with food once a day. 
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    A , Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, answered
    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a hereditary condition of parathyroid gland sensing. The parathyroid glands in this condition do not properly sense blood calcium levels and secrete excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) even when the blood calcium level is normal. This results in a rise in the blood calcium. This is a true form of hyperparathyroidism, but it tends to be relatively benign, with only mild elevation of the blood calcium and relatively few long-term complications. The hallmark of the condition is an unusually low urine calcium excretion, typically less than 50 mg of calcium in the urine in 24 hours. The condition is not always hereditary -- there are non-familial cases as well. Measurement of urine calcium excretion is an important part of the evaluation of someone with a high blood calcium level, both to exclude FHH as a diagnosis and to determine if the person is at high risk of kidney stones, which might prompt one to recommend surgery.  
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    If you are dehydrated, you should try to rehydrate by drinking water or other liquids such as sports drinks, which contain electrolytes. Water will likely be your best bet -- avoid trying to rehydrate with sugary juices, carbonated beverages or coffee. You should also consider resting and getting out of the sun. Treatment for severe dehydration may require intravenous fluids given at the hospital.
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    It’s vital to catch dehydration early because it doesn’t take long for it to turn into more severe dehydration, which in extreme cases can result in death. The symptoms of moderate to severe dehydration are:
    • fast, weak pulse
    • fainting
    • severe muscle contractions
    • convulsions
    • heart failure
    • urine color
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    The contributors to metabolic syndrome and obesity are multifactorial, but they do involve genetics. If you look at families that have a history of obesity, you can see that multiple family members often suffer from the same metabolic problems. Experts have not found specific identifying genes, per se, that can isolate those at risk for metabolic syndrome. Nevertheless, when doctors look at the overall history (a patient's family and personal history), they see that multiple factors are involved in developing metabolic syndrome, including a genetic component.
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    A Family Medicine, answered on behalf of
    Dehydration is quite preventable, even in the heat and humidity found in South Florida and other locations affected by tropical weather. The problem with type of unique climate is that humidity affects how easily sweat evaporates from skin. 
    Sweat must be evaporated to cool off the body. When humidity is 60 percent or greater, it is difficult for sweat to evaporate into the air. And that's important because sweat is our body’s way of keeping cool. However, when we perspire we lose body fluids and that can lead to dehydration.
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    To prevent dehydration during exercise, drinking plenty of fluids before, during and after exercise is paramount. Dehydration, heat exhaustion and heat stroke are high risks during prolonged or intense exercise.  According to the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the amount of fluids and the types of fluids consumed are important for achieving optimal performance.

    The carbohydrates and electrolytes in quality sports drinks can help restore fluid loss while also providing muscles with the needed fuel to avoid mental and physical fatigue and poor performance. When the workout is intense or longer than one hour you can ensure proper hydration by drinking plenty of water prior to your workout and sipping on a sports drink that is made of six percent carbohydrate solution during and after your workout. On the other hand, if your workout is short or low intensity drinking water is sufficient for proper hydration.
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    A Family Medicine, answered on behalf of
    Dehydration occurs when you lose more fluid than you take in, and your body doesn’t have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions. If you don’t replace lost fluids, you may become severely dehydrated. Severe dehydration requires immediate medical attention, to avoid progression to heat stroke, which can result in death or cause damage to the brain and other internal organs.
    Common causes of dehydration include intense diarrhea, vomiting, fever or excessive sweating. Not drinking enough water during hot weather or exercise also may cause dehydration. Anyone may become dehydrated, but young children, older adults and people with chronic illnesses are most at risk.