It is important to take steps to avoid dehydration.
- Drink plenty of fluids (especially when playing in the sun).
- Schedule outdoor activities during cooler times of the day.
- Drink appropriate fluids to help maintain the body's electrolyte balance.
Hypokalemia is not usually caused by a diet deficient in potassium. Commonly, too much potassium is lost through urination or through the digestive system due to diuretics (water pills) that cause water containing potassium to be expelled in the urine; diarrhea or vomiting; overuse of laxatives; kidney disease; bulimia and other eating disorders; adrenal gland diseases such as Cushings syndrome; and some antibiotics. Hypokalemia can result in kidney damage if the body is deficient in potassium for a long period of time.
Porphyria is a term that refers to a group of disorders-the porphyrias-that affect the nervous system or skin, or both. Each type of porphyria is due to the deficiency of one of the enzymes needed to make a substance called heme in the body. Enzymes are proteins that bring about certain chemical reactions in the body. The production of heme involves a series of eight different enzymes, each acting in turn.
Heme is a red pigment composed of iron linked to a chemical called protoporphyrin. Heme has important functions in the body. The largest amounts of heme are in the blood and bone marrow in the form of hemoglobin within red blood cells. Hemoglobin gives blood its red color and carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. In the liver, heme is a component of proteins that have many functions, including breaking down hormones, drugs, and other chemicals and generating high-energy compounds that keep the liver cells alive and functioning normally.
The body makes heme mainly in the bone marrow and the liver. The process of heme production is called the heme biosynthetic pathway. Each step of the process is controlled by one of eight enzymes. If any one of the enzymes is deficient, the process is disrupted. As a result, porphyrin or its precursors?chemicals formed at earlier steps of the process?may build up in body tissues and cause illness.
This answer is based on source information from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Most cases of hyperkalemia are emergencies that require hospitalization of individuals until their condition has stabilized, so it is likely that you will not have an appointment to diagnose it. Information regarding your personal and family health history is helpful including acute or chronic kidney disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, disorders of the nervous system or muscles, problems with the adrenal glands, medications taken, and injuries.
Symptoms of hypokalemia are usually not detectable unless potassium levels in the blood reach dangerously low levels. Symptoms of this condition include abnormal beating of the heart, constipation, tiredness, weak muscles, rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown), and paralysis that can affect the lungs. Some of these symptoms appear more quickly in individuals with heart disease.
Depending on the type of mucolipidoses disease that a person has, it may affect them differently as they age. Children born with MLI (sialidosis) typically die in their first year, while those with MLII may die before age seven. It is common for those with MLIII to be diagnosed during the preschool years. Those with sialidosis type I (juvenile sialidosis) exhibit symptoms after age ten and can live into their forties or fifties. Children who have MLIV often fail to develop their language or movement skills beyond those of a toddler and can lose all vision by their teen years.