Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a hereditary condition of parathyroid gland sensing. The parathyroid glands in this condition do not properly sense blood calcium levels and secrete excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) even when the blood calcium level is normal. This results in a rise in the blood calcium. This is a true form of hyperparathyroidism, but it tends to be relatively benign, with only mild elevation of the blood calcium and relatively few long-term complications. The hallmark of the condition is an unusually low urine calcium excretion, typically less than 50 mg of calcium in the urine in 24 hours. The condition is not always hereditary -- there are non-familial cases as well. Measurement of urine calcium excretion is an important part of the evaluation of someone with a high blood calcium level, both to exclude FHH as a diagnosis and to determine if the person is at high risk of kidney stones, which might prompt one to recommend surgery.
Your metabolism uses chemicals to break down food you eat into sugars and acids. These sugars and acids can provide you with immediate energy, or this energy can be stored in your tissues. Metabolic disorders damage your body by hurting your ability to get energy from food. Your metabolism is also involved in eliminating waste from your body, circulating blood and controlling body temperature. Metabolic disorders are caused by defective genes, often inherited, that disrupt metabolism. Early diagnosis is helpful in most effectively treating a metabolic disorder. There have been advances in the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic disorders. There are thousands of metabolic disorders with a wide array of symptoms and treatments. See your doctor with any questions about metabolic disorders.
2 AnswersIf you are dehydrated, you should try to rehydrate by drinking water or other liquids such as sports drinks, which contain electrolytes. Water will likely be your best bet -- avoid trying to rehydrate with sugary juices, carbonated beverages or coffee. You should also consider resting and getting out of the sun. Treatment for severe dehydration may require intravenous fluids given at the hospital.
1 AnswerIt’s vital to catch dehydration early because it doesn’t take long for it to turn into more severe dehydration, which in extreme cases can result in death. The symptoms of moderate to severe dehydration are:
- fast, weak pulse
- severe muscle contractions
- heart failure
- urine color
1 AnswerDr. Melissa Bagloo, MD, Bariatric Medicine, answered on behalf of Columbia University Department of SurgeryThe contributors to metabolic syndrome and obesity are multifactorial, but they do involve genetics. If you look at families that have a history of obesity, you can see that multiple family members often suffer from the same metabolic problems. Experts have not found specific identifying genes, per se, that can isolate those at risk for metabolic syndrome. Nevertheless, when doctors look at the overall history (a patient's family and personal history), they see that multiple factors are involved in developing metabolic syndrome, including a genetic component.
1 AnswerDehydration is quite preventable, even in the heat and humidity found in South Florida and other locations affected by tropical weather. The problem with type of unique climate is that humidity affects how easily sweat evaporates from skin.
Sweat must be evaporated to cool off the body. When humidity is 60 percent or greater, it is difficult for sweat to evaporate into the air. And that's important because sweat is our body’s way of keeping cool. However, when we perspire we lose body fluids and that can lead to dehydration.
2 AnswersThe most important, and probably most obvious, way to prevent dehydration during exercise is to drink plenty of fluids. You should drink fluids before, during and after any form of exercise. Pay attention to your environment, as it is much easier to become dehydrated out on a sports field in the middle of the summer than it is in an air-conditioned gym. Therefore, your environment should play a role in determining what type of exercise you will be doing and for what duration.
The last and probably most important tip is to listen to your body. As you become dehydrated your body will give you signs and encourage you to rehydrate. Some signs of dehydration include dry mouth, thirst, sweating, fatigue, muscle cramping, flushed skin and dizziness. If you begin to develop any of these symptoms you have already waited too long to hydrate and should start drinking fluids immediately.
1 AnswerDehydration occurs when you lose more fluid than you take in, and your body doesn’t have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions. If you don’t replace lost fluids, you may become severely dehydrated. Severe dehydration requires immediate medical attention, to avoid progression to heat stroke, which can result in death or cause damage to the brain and other internal organs.
Common causes of dehydration include intense diarrhea, vomiting, fever or excessive sweating. Not drinking enough water during hot weather or exercise also may cause dehydration. Anyone may become dehydrated, but young children, older adults and people with chronic illnesses are most at risk.
1 AnswerKate Geagan, Nutrition & Dietetics, answeredFor the ultimate energy boost, the best secret is to be sure to drink plenty of water throughout the day, especially with midmorning and midafternoon snacks. As little as 2% dehydration can leave you crankier, less able to concentrate, and feeling more sluggish. Who needs that? Bring a reusable water bottle to work and keep it in front of you -- it’ll be a powerful visual reminder to drink throughout the day.
1 AnswerYour body only needs to be dehydrated slightly to have a negative impact on performance, especially in the heat. Side effects of significant dehydration during sport include decreased performance, strained cardiovascular system, premature fatigue and increased risk for heat illness. This highlights why being properly hydrated before beginning a training session or competition is crucial for your body to perform safely and at its best. A simple way you can determine if you are drinking enough is by looking at the color and volume of your urine. Urine that is darker in color and low in volume can be a sign of significant dehydration. The goal is to have regular urinations that are light yellow in color. If you are making frequent stops at the bathroom with perfectly clear urine, it is probably a sign that you are drinking too much water.
1 AnswerSweat electrolyte losses, particularly sodium and chloride, vary by individual. Muscle cramping due to exertional heat stress can be attributed to an electrolyte deficit caused by sweating, as the sodium and chloride lost through sweat are not matched sufficiently by dietary salt intake. Replacing sodium is crucial to enhancing body-water retention and distribution. Some athletes are referred to as “salty sweaters” because they have a relatively high concentration of sodium in their sweat and a high sweat rate. This combination puts these particular athletes at an elevated risk for developing muscle cramps. Knowing how much fluid and electrolytes your body loses through sweating helps you to properly rehydrate after training or competition.