Often, kidney malrotation is found in an otherwise healthy infant or child, sometimes noticed on a prenatal (before birth) sonogram, and may not have any impact on health. In adults, kidney malrotation might be noticed when a person has body imaging for a completely different reason.
In some cases, a malrotated kidney can be associated with some functional problems in the way urine drains to the bladder and with vesicoureteral reflux (when some urine flows backwards through the urinary system). These problems may lead to urinary tract infections (UTI), which could be the only sign of the condition. More rarely, malrotated kidneys may be part of more complex combinations of congenital (birth) defects.
Additional testing or imaging might be recommended when a malrotated kidney is noticed in a baby, especially after a UTI.