Your Top 5 Questions About Glaucoma, Answered

What you need to know about this eye disease, including risk factors and treatment.

Medically reviewed in June 2022

Updated on January 14, 2022

You've probably heard of the eye condition called glaucoma. Maybe an older relative has it, or maybe you've been recently diagnosed. While it's a common cause of blindness (in fact, the second leading cause of blindness in the world), glaucoma has no early warning signs. About 3 million Americans have glaucoma, but only half of them know it. That's why it's sometimes called "the silent thief of sight."

Andrew Iwach, MD, an ophthalmologist and executive director of the Glaucoma Center of San Francisco, answers the most frequently asked questions about this common but serious condition.

What is glaucoma?
Glaucoma is an eye disease that damages the optic nerve, the connection between your eyes and your brain. The nerve damage is usually due to high amounts of pressure inside the eye, either because fluid inside the eye isn't draining well or too much fluid is being produced.

Am I at risk of developing glaucoma?
You may be more likely to develop glaucoma if you have some of these risk factors:

  • African-American, Hispanic, or Asian ethnicity
  • Over the age of 60
  • Family history of glaucoma
  • Elevated eye pressure (which your doctor checks during a routine eye exam)
  • Long-term steroid use, such as an inhaler for asthma
  • Past eye injury
  • Smoking
  • Farsightedness or nearsightedness
  • Conditions that affect blood vessels, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and migraines

What are the warning signs of glaucoma?
Most people don't notice any symptoms in the early stages of glaucoma. That's why seeing your eye doctor every year is so important. If you don't get regular eye exams, the first symptom you notice could be loss of vision, particularly your peripheral vision.

How can I prevent glaucoma?
When you turn 40, be sure to see an ophthalmologist. These eye doctors have an MD or DO after their names, meaning they went to medical school and can diagnose and treat serious eye diseases. Most people see an optometrist for vision tests, but as you get older and more likely to develop a disease, you'll want to start seeing an ophthalmologist.

Don't smoke and keep your blood pressure in check. Follow your healthcare provider’s treatment plan for controlling other conditions, like diabetes. Use safety glasses when doing chores at home, such as yard work.

How is glaucoma treated?
While there’s no way to reverse the effects of glaucoma, certain medications and procedures can slow or stop it from getting worse.

Early stages of glaucoma are usually treated with medicated eye drops. These work by lowering the pressure inside the eye, which can help prevent nerve damage and vision loss. Of course, it’s important to use the drops as directed to enjoy the benefits. Be sure to fill your prescription right away and set an alarm or other reminder for your new daily medication.

Eye doctors can also perform a surgical procedure to drain extra fluid from inside the eye and relieve pressure. Some providers offer laser procedures at their office. The procedure may need to be repeated, and some people still need eye drops after surgery.

Before you start treatment for glaucoma, be sure to tell your eye doctor about any other medical conditions you have. For example, tell your eye doctor if you're on prostaglandins or beta-blockers. Some eye drops contain the same type of drug, and your provider will want to be sure you aren't taking too much.

Article sources open article sources

National Eye Institute. Glaucoma. Last updated: September 10, 2021.
The Glaucoma Foundation. Who’s at Risk? Accessed January 14, 2022.

More On

4 lifestyle changes that might help with wet AMD

video

4 lifestyle changes that might help with wet AMD
These strategies may slow the progression of AMD.
Follow-Up Visits for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

article

Follow-Up Visits for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
What to discuss at your follow-up appointments with your eye doctor for wet age-related macular degeneration.
10 Things Your Vision Reveals About Your Health

slideshow

10 Things Your Vision Reveals About Your Health
Changes in your vision may be signs of other medical conditions.
Are There Serious Complications If Bacterial Eye Infections Are Untreated?

video

Are There Serious Complications If Bacterial Eye Infections Are Untreated?
Untreated bacterial eye infections can have serious complications, including corneal ulcers. Ophthalmologist and Sharecare Advisory Board member David...
What Types of Over-the-Counter Medications Are Available for Dry Eyes?

video

What Types of Over-the-Counter Medications Are Available for Dry Eyes?
There are many over-the-counter medications for dry eyes. Ophthalmologist and Sharecare Advisory Board member David Demartini, MD offers his recommend...