• MD: Univ. of Minnesota Residency:
• Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco Fellowship:
• Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami Internship:
• Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis Certification:
• American Academy of Ophthalmology
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the decrease in vision caused by the progressive deterioration in retinal function in senior patients. It is commonly classified into either the slowly progressive "dry" form, or the more rapid "wet" form. Treatments are different for each form. There have... Full Post
The macula is the central area of the retina where all the fine vision is processed. The vision on the eye chart is all seen through the macula. Macular holes are a separation of the retina either from itself or the underlying choroid. This can be a slow change starting with blurring or more dram... Full Post
Ptosis is the drooping of the upper (usually) eyelid. Most people get ptosis because of old age and laxity of the muscle and tendon that lifts the upper eyelid. Other diseases can cause the drooping of the eyelid including myasthenia gravis, stroke muscle degeneration diseases, and abnormal masses behind... Full Post
Visual fields test the peripheral vision of the patient. Many disease processes affect the visual fields because they either damage the optic nerves or the brain where vision is processed. Because it is difficult to directly examine these structures, visual fields provide a careful way to evaluate their... Full Post
The visual field test is a way to evaluate the peripheral vision sensitivity of an eye. It uses a very small test light that can vary in brightness. This determines how well and how far out to the side this small intensity of light can be seen. A healthy eye can see tiny, low intensity lights way out... Full Post
There is no absolute age for beginning contact lenses. Contacts are used to correct refractive errors that usually can also be corrected by glasses. Glasses are less threatening to the health of your eye so they are usually prescribed first. Contacts are mostly a convenience for patients who do not... Full Post
Contact lenses are lenses designed to ride on the surface of the eye to effectively change the curvature of the cornea which then corrects the vision of the eye. They come as soft, rigid or a combination lens to accomplish this purpose. Not only do contacts have to have a lens power they also have a curvature... Full Post
Contact lenses come in many various types and are used for different eye problems. Most common contacts are soft contacts which are the most comfortable and the easiest for most new patients to wear. Most are 60 to 70% water with a soft plastic matrix to hold their shape. These are used for near,... Full Post
The cornea is the clear window on the very front of the eye through which the pupil and the colored iris is visible. The cornea has two major functions: focus the light rays that come into the eye onto the retina and protection of the eye.
To focus the light and make a clear image on the retina,... Full Post
Uveitis is inflammation in the uveal tissues (iris, ciliary body and choroid). There are many different causes for uveitis and the treatment depends on the cause. If it is infection such tuberculosis or herpes simplex virus then the antibiotics for this is the treatment. If the cause is an inflammatory disease... Full Post
Contacts are generally very safe and well tolerated. They can cause problems such as infections, allergy, toxicity, or poor performance in vision correction. Most of these are rare if a careful clinician fits and monitors them.
Contacts are very convenient and helpful for vision correction but should not be the... Full Post
Combat soldiers are exposed to many forms of burns that can effect their eyes.Thermal, chemical and radiation can cause burns.
Healthy eyes must have a moist, clean and smooth environment to function well.This requires adquate tear volume and quality, functioning eyelids and normal sensation to the eye tissues. ... Full Post
There are many different types of foreign subsatance that can injure an eye. Most commonly they are very small, on the surface and are hard to see by the patient or a family member but can be easily felt by the patient. These foreign bodies can be better seen by the eye doctor who has magnifying instruments... Full Post
MMP is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects mostly elderly patients where the body's white blood cells get programmed to attack their own mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, colon and/or vagina. There is no known cause but the genetics are beginning to be understood. Women are more often affected... Full Post