Particularly for women, obesity is linked with incontinence. In people with obesity, the pelvic floor muscles must support excess abdominal fat as well as the pelvic organs, which can lead to stress incontinence (leaking when coughing or jumping). In addition, obesity may place pressure on the bladder and interfere with its blood and nerve supply. Fat tissue itself may contribute to overactive bladder (frequent urination and urges to urinate) by altering the balance of chemical messengers between nerve cells. Weight loss can sometimes improve incontinence without other treatment.
A connection between obesity and urinary incontinence is less well-documented in men. However, in some surveys, obese men report more urinary tract symptoms, including urgency and nocturia (the regular need to urinate more than twice during the night), and they are more likely to require surgery for an enlarged prostate (a procedure that sometimes leads to incontinence).
For men as well as women, many surgeries to counter incontinence are less successful in those who are obese.