Metabolic Disorders

Metabolic Disorders

Your metabolism uses chemicals to break down food you eat into sugars and acids. These sugars and acids can provide you with immediate energy, or this energy can be stored in your tissues. Metabolic disorders damage your body by hurting your ability to get energy from food. Your metabolism is also involved in eliminating waste from your body, circulating blood and controlling body temperature. Metabolic disorders are caused by defective genes, often inherited, that disrupt metabolism. Early diagnosis is helpful in most effectively treating a metabolic disorder. There have been advances in the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic disorders. There are thousands of metabolic disorders with a wide array of symptoms and treatments. See your doctor with any questions about metabolic disorders.

Recently Answered

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    The contributors to metabolic syndrome and obesity are multifactorial, but they do involve genetics. If you look at families that have a history of obesity, you can see that multiple family members often suffer from the same metabolic problems. Experts have not found specific identifying genes, per se, that can isolate those at risk for metabolic syndrome. Nevertheless, when doctors look at the overall history (a patient's family and personal history), they see that multiple factors are involved in developing metabolic syndrome, including a genetic component.
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    AAgueda Hernandez, MD, Family Medicine, answered on behalf of Baptist Health South Florida
    Dehydration is quite preventable, even in the heat and humidity found in South Florida and other locations affected by tropical weather. The problem with type of unique climate is that humidity affects how easily sweat evaporates from skin. 
    Sweat must be evaporated to cool off the body. When humidity is 60 percent or greater, it is difficult for sweat to evaporate into the air. And that's important because sweat is our body’s way of keeping cool. However, when we perspire we lose body fluids and that can lead to dehydration.
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    AAgueda Hernandez, MD, Family Medicine, answered on behalf of Baptist Health South Florida

    Sweat is our body’s way of keeping cool, but when we perspire we lose body fluids and that can lead to dehydration. Drinking water or other fluids is a must before you head outdoors to exercise. And keeping hydrated during intense running or other activity in the heat is vital.

    Here are some other tips on beating the heat:

    • Try to drink at least every 15 to 20 minutes, or as needed.
    • Use a sports drink if you will be exercising for longer than one hour.
    • Do not drink coffee, colas, or other drinks that contain caffeine. They increase urine output and make you dehydrate faster.
    • If you are on a high-protein diet, make sure that you drink at least 8 to 12 glasses of water each day.
    • Avoid alcohol, including beer and wine. They increase dehydration and make it hard to make good decisions.
    • If possible, exercise very early in the day or very late to avoid the hottest parts of the day.
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    AAgueda Hernandez, MD, Family Medicine, answered on behalf of Baptist Health South Florida

    Dehydration occurs when you lose more fluid than you take in, and your body doesn’t have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions. If you don’t replace lost fluids, you may become severely dehydrated. Severe dehydration requires immediate medical attention, to avoid progression to heat stroke, which can result in death or cause damage to the brain and other internal organs.

    Common causes of dehydration include intense diarrhea, vomiting, fever or excessive sweating. Not drinking enough water during hot weather or exercise also may cause dehydration. Anyone may become dehydrated, but young children, older adults and people with chronic illnesses are most at risk.

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    AKate Geagan, Nutrition & Dietetics, answered
    For the ultimate energy boost, the best secret is to be sure to drink plenty of water throughout the day, especially with midmorning and midafternoon snacks. As little as 2% dehydration can leave you crankier, less able to concentrate, and feeling more sluggish. Who needs that? Bring a reusable water bottle to work and keep it in front of you -- it’ll be a powerful visual reminder to drink throughout the day.
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    AMichael Bergeron, PhD, Sports Medicine, answered on behalf of Sanford Health
    Your body only needs to be dehydrated slightly to have a negative impact on performance, especially in the heat. Side effects of significant dehydration during sport include decreased performance, strained cardiovascular system, premature fatigue and increased risk for heat illness. This highlights why being properly hydrated before beginning a training session or competition is crucial for your body to perform safely and at its best. A simple way you can determine if you are drinking enough is by looking at the color and volume of your urine. Urine that is darker in color and low in volume can be a sign of significant dehydration. The goal is to have regular urinations that are light yellow in color. If you are making frequent stops at the bathroom with perfectly clear urine, it is probably a sign that you are drinking too much water.
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    AMichael Bergeron, PhD, Sports Medicine, answered on behalf of Sanford Health
    Sweat electrolyte losses, particularly sodium and chloride, vary by individual. Muscle cramping due to exertional heat stress can be attributed to an electrolyte deficit caused by sweating, as the sodium and chloride lost through sweat are not matched sufficiently by dietary salt intake. Replacing sodium is crucial to enhancing body-water retention and distribution. Some athletes are referred to as “salty sweaters” because they have a relatively high concentration of sodium in their sweat and a high sweat rate. This combination puts these particular athletes at an elevated risk for developing muscle cramps. Knowing how much fluid and electrolytes your body loses through sweating helps you to properly rehydrate after training or competition.
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    ARealAge answered

    Getting dehydrated is one of the quickest ways to take the spring out of your step. In fact, being even just a little dehydrated can lead to unpleasant feelings like fatigue, crankiness, and foggy thinking. So when you feel yourself dragging, try grabbing yourself a tall drink of water. 

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    General: There is currently no known cure for Sanfilippo syndrome. Treatment instead focuses on the management of symptoms and the prevention of complications. Most of the symptoms are caused by neurological degeneration, which cannot be reversed.

    Assisted mobility devices: Most patients with Sanfilippo syndrome lose the ability to walk. A cane, leg braces, walker, or wheelchair may be required if walking becomes painful or difficult as a result of bone, tendon, ligament, or muscle problems.

    Diet: Dietary management is important for Sanfilippo syndrome patients with swallowing difficulties in order to promote physical development and keep the potential for mobility high. When the body is deprived of calories and protein, it begins to feed on its own muscles for nourishment. For this reason, maintaining adequate nutrition is very important. A speech pathologist may be able to identify whether certain foods may be particularly hazardous to a patient. To prevent choking and aspiration, solid food may be pureed and liquids may be thickened for individuals with Sanfilippo syndrome.

    Physical therapy: Patients with Sanfilippo syndrome may benefit from seeing a physical therapist. A physical therapist can help patients maintain muscle tone and keep muscles strong and flexible by performing different exercises.

    Speech-language therapy: Some patients with Sanfilippo syndrome may benefit from speech-language therapy if they have intellectual disabilities or if they develop communication skills more slowly than normal children. Qualified speech-language professionals (SLPs) work with patients one-on-one, in small groups, or in classrooms to help patients improve speech, language, and communication skills. Programs are tailored to patients' individual needs. Speech pathologists use a variety of exercises to improve the patient's communication skills. Exercises typically start off simple and become more complex as therapy continues. For instance, the therapist may ask the patient to name objects, tell stories, or explain the purpose of an object.

    You should read product labels, and discuss all therapies with a qualified healthcare provider. Natural Standard information does not constitute medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

    Copyright © 2012 by Natural Standard Research Collaboration. All Rights Reserved.

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    Nerve conduction study: A nerve conduction study is used to measure how quickly nerves are able to send electrical signals. To perform this test, metal electrodes are attached to the skin. One electrode is placed over a nerve and another is placed over the muscle controlled by that nerve. Clinicians can deliver a mild shock to the nerve, and measure the amount of time it takes the muscle to respond to the impulse. If the response times are slow, it may indicate a nervous system disorder.

    Physical exam: A physical exam may show signs of liver and spleen swelling caused by the accumulation of heparan sulfate. There may be evidence of seizures, swallowing difficulties, and mental disabilities. Individuals with Sanfilippo syndrome are shorter than average when fully grown. Other features may include an enlarged head, full lips, and heavy eyebrows that meet in the middle of the face above the nose.

    Urine test: Because people with Sanfilippo syndrome cannot break down heparan sulfate, it builds up in cells and is excreted in the urine.

    X-rays: X-rays of the bones may be taken because Sanfilippo syndrome patients generally have a lower than normal bone density.

    You should read product labels, and discuss all therapies with a qualified healthcare provider. Natural Standard information does not constitute medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

    Copyright © 2012 by Natural Standard Research Collaboration. All Rights Reserved.