Osteotomy is another option. During this procedure, the surgeon reshapes the tibia and femur to improve your knee's alignment. The result is better knee function and less pain. You may be a good candidate for osteotomy if you are young, active, or overweight, and if your knee damage is correctable, the damage is primarily confined to one part of the knee, and the area shows no signs of inflammation.
Arthroscopic surgery to remove torn cartilage and small bone spurs (debridement) and to flush out the joint with a saline solution (lavage) is used less often today than in years past after research revealed this technique to be useful in only limited situations.
Biological resurfacing is a method sometimes used in selected cases in young people with damaged cartilage. Cartilage cells can be harvested from a patient, grown and reproduced in a lab, and then reinserted into the patient's knee joint. In a younger patient, the cells have a greater chance of success than in older patients. Generally, cartilage replacement works best in patients with limited areas of cartilage damage, often caused by sports or other injuries.