Diverticulitis is caused by little sacs in the intestines that become swollen and inflamed. When these sacs swell, they may cause a tunnel, or fistula, from the intestine to another internal organ, causing infection. Sometimes the sacs in the intestines may become so swollen that they burst, causing intestinal contents to infect the entire abdomen. Additionally, patients who suffer from multiple bouts of diverticulitis may develop scarring that blocks the passage of fecal matter.
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Atlanta Gastroenterology Associates answered
Diverticulitis occurs when pouches (diverticula) that have developed in the wall of the large intestine (colon) become inflamed or infected. It is not clearly understood why 20 out of 100 people who have these pouches (a condition called diverticulosis) develop diverticulitis and the others do not.
In Western countries (North America and Europe), diverticulitis usually affects the left side of the colon (sigmoid colon).
Mild attacks of diverticulitis, with few symptoms or signs of infection or inflammation, sometimes heal without treatment. In most cases, a doctor recommends oral antibiotics to resolve an infection and a clear liquid diet to rest the bowel until inflammation goes away.
When infection and symptoms are severe, diverticulitis is treated in the hospital. Treatment includes antibiotics given in a vein (intravenous, or IV) and resting the bowel with IV fluids. If severe diverticulitis is not treated, complications such as an abscess or fistula may develop. Surgery often is needed to treat complications.
It is common to have lower abdominal pain after recovering from an attack of diverticulitis. But this pain is not always a return of diverticulitis. Less than half of people ever have a second diverticulitis attack. Of those who do have another attack, about half have the second attack within 1 year of their first one.
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