Diagnostic Biopsy

Diagnostic Biopsy

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    ASimon J. Hall, MD, Urology, answered on behalf of The Mount Sinai Health System
    Should I Get a Prostate Biopsy If I Have an Elevated PSA Test?

    Some patients with elevated PSA levels may need a prostate biopsy--but not every one, explains Simon Hall, MD, chairman of the department of urology at The Mount Sinai Medical Center and director of the Deane Prostate Health and Research Center.

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    After ovulation the lining to the womb or endometrium, prepares for implantation of the fertilized egg or embryo. Once the embryo reaches a certain size, it is ready to attach to the uterine lining. The endometrial biopsy is a method to evaluate the development of the endometrium or histology. An endometrial biopsy can also be used to help fertility specialists evaluate markers of uterine receptivity. Certain proteins are required for successful pregnancy to occur and might be missing in certain conditions, such as endometriosis, tubal disease or in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The biopsy requires proper timing and should be performed 8 or 9 days after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge has occurred.

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    In a cardiac biopsy, a catheter with a small grasping device is threaded through an artery and into your heart to take a small piece of tissue. A lab analysis of this tissue can show whether you have inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis). It may also help find the cause of heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy). A biopsy can also help show if there is rejection after a heart transplant.
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    APenn Medicine answered
    A biopsy is needed to tell if you have prostate cancer. A sample of tissue is removed from the prostate and sent to a lab.

    Your doctor may recommend a prostate biopsy if:
    • you have high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level
    • a rectal exam shows a large prostate or a hard, uneven surface
    The results are reported using what is called a Gleason grade and a Gleason score.

    The Gleason grade tells you how fast the cancer might spread. It grades tumors on a scale of 1 to 5. You may have different grades of cancer in one biopsy sample. The two main grades are added together. This gives you the Gleason score. The higher your Gleason score, the more likely the cancer is to have spread past the prostate:
    • scores 2 to 5: low-grade prostate cancer
    • scores 6 to 7: intermediate- (or in the middle-) grade cancer (most prostate cancers fall into this group)
    • scores 8 to 10: high-grade cancer
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    ARealAge answered

    If urinary difficulties are present, or the results of a digital rectal exam or a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test are suspicious, your doctor will probably recommend an ultrasound and a biopsy to rule out prostate cancer. The kind of biopsy used with the prostate is a core needle biopsy. It is a surgical procedure in which a sample of tissue is removed for examination under a microscope. Transrectal ultrasound is used to guide the insertion of a narrow needle through the wall of the rectum into the prostate gland. The needle removes a cylinder of tissue, usually about 1/2 inch long and 1/16 inch across, which is sent to a laboratory for microscopic analysis by a pathologist to see if cancer is present.

    The biopsy procedure is usually done in the doctor's office and takes about 30 minutes. Though it may sound painful, it typically causes little discomfort because a special instrument called a biopsy gun inserts and removes the needle in a fraction of a second. Several biopsy samples are often taken from different areas of the prostate. Usually six samples are taken (upper, mid, and lower areas of the left and right sides) to get a representative sample of the gland to tell how much of the gland is affected by the cancer. But, in some cases, such as especially large glands, as many as 18 samples may be taken.

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    AHealthyWomen answered
    These are among several types of skin biopsies that healthcare professionals may perform if you have suspicious-looking growths that could be skin cancer. With a scalpel, a wide and deep sample of skin with various amounts of the underlying fat will be removed, and then the wound is closed with stitches or staples. Incisional biopsy removes a portion of the growth, and excisional biopsy is used to remove or sample broad or deep growths. 
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    AHealthyWomen answered
    For a bunch biopsy, a sample of the entire thickness of the skin is taken (about 1/8 inch) with an instrument that takes a cylindrical core sample of the skin and a small part of the underlying fat layer. It is one of several types of skin biopsies that healthcare professionals may perform if you have suspicious-looking growths that could be skin cancer.
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    AHealthyWomen answered
    For a shave biopsy, the epidermis and the upper part of the dermis are shaved off in a thin slice. This procedure is performed with local anesthesia. It is one of several types of skin biopsies that healthcare professionals may perform if you have suspicious-looking growths that could be skin cancer.
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    After your breast biopsy, the breast tissue sample will be sent to a lab to be analyzed. Analyzing the tissue sample shows whether the tissue is benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). If the biopsy shows you have cancer, it also tells your doctor what type of cancer it is and helps guide your treatment plan.

    Your doctor will let you know how long it should take to get results and how you will be notified. Keep your follow-up appointment to discuss your results with your doctor.
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    Here are some ways to manage your pain after a breast biopsy:
    • After the test, your breast may be sore and tender to the touch for several days, and you may notice some bruising. Your doctor might prescribe pain medication. You can also use ice packs or an over-the-counter pain reliever.
    • If you had general anesthesia, you may also have a sore throat from the breathing tube used to keep your airway open during the procedure. This should go away in 1 to 2 days.