Steven A. Rosenberg, MD, PhD
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Variety of ways to do immunotherapy. There're three basic approaches. One is a non specific approach you give in a look in to, to try to stimulate cells that naturally exist against the cancer. You can get what are called check point modulators like [xx] or anti-PD1, these are molecules that put breaks on the immune system, that is decrease the immune system, and so there're always two ways to stimulate somebody, you can stimulate it directly or you can eliminate inhibitory factors, that will result in stimulation, but it's non specific treatment it's not actually targeting an individual cancer, you're given the drug in the hope that you will be stimulating cells that can target the cancer, so that's one of non specific approach.

The second type of immunotherapy uses what are called cancer vaccines that attempt to immunize patients against their own cancers by giving them an immunizing stimulus despite virtually thousands of papers, there will be no effective cancer vaccines with the possibility of one against prostrate cancer that was developed by Deng Leion but it's very ineffective, in studies of over 300 patients, it can prolong survival by about four months, medium survival but falsely all patients progress, all patients go on to die just seems to slow down the cancer a little bit, there are no other reproducible vaccines that are shown to be effective against cancer.