Diabetes Type 2

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    A answered
    Diabetes is typically diagnosed by measuring the blood sugar level. This is typically done in a medical laboratory or doctor's office on a small sample of blood, or at home or other location with a glucometer or automatic measuring device. Since blood sugar can fluctuate moment to moment, there are several methods used by the medical laboratory to standardize the measurement. These include testing the blood sugar after fasting for 10 hours or more (FBS), testing the blood sugar 2 hours after a meal (2-hour postprandial sugar), and, finally, the glucose tolerance test (GTT).

    In addition, the hemoglobin A1c is typically checked, as it shows what the average blood sugar has been over a longer interval of time. Sometimes, diabetes specialists will also use additional tests to better characterize a person's diabetes. These include serum C-peptide, C-reactive protein (CRP), and insulin levels. These are used only in special cases and usually require special expertise to interpret.
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    A , Integrative Medicine, answered
    A simple blood test, called a fasting insulin level, will detect insulin resistance. Although the normal range (i.e., you’re not in the highest or lowest 2 percent of the population) is considered 5 to 25 units/ml, if your morning fasting insulin blood level is greater than 10 to 15, this could be excess insulin production suggestive of insulin resistance.
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    A , Internal Medicine, answered
    One early sign of insulin resistance is the appearance of a brown, thick, velvety patch of skin behind your neck. The condition—called acanthosis nigricans—is an early sign of metabolic syndrome, which is associated with high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high blood sugar.
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    Signs or symptoms of insulin resistance include increased thirst and increased need to urinate, resulting in having to get up multiple times during the night to use the bathroom. Others may experience weight loss or fatigue.

    These signs and symptoms of insulin resistance are related to elevated glucose, or sugar, in your bloodstream. Your body typically keeps tight control of the level of glucose in your system. It is important to see your primary care doctor if you think you may have elevated blood sugar or have risk factors including family history or obesity.
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    Obesity contributes to insulin resistance and negatively affects the body’s ability to use insulin properly. 

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    A , Cardiology (Cardiovascular Disease), answered
    Insulin resistance—in which the body isn't able to use the hormone insulin properly in order to get energy from glucose—can develop as a result of weight gain. That's because putting on pounds means an increase in body fat (adipose tissue). Fat cells are highly active. They produce many different chemicals, including inflammatory compounds, fatty acids and various hormones. These and other chemicals released by fat cells create changes that can result in insulin resistance. Not surprisingly, obese people have a high risk for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
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    A , Cardiology (Cardiovascular Disease), answered
    Gaining weight increases your risk for developing a condition called insulin resistance. Insulin is an important hormone, or chemical messenger. One of insulin's roles is to help cells in the body use glucose to produce energy. Fat cells release hormones, inflammatory compounds and other chemicals that interfere with this process, resulting in insulin resistance. Many people with insulin resistance eventually develop type 2 diabetes.
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    The best way to reverse insulin resistance is to exercise. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for 20 to 30 minutes every day will be of benefit to anyone, especially if diabetes is a concern. There are medicines to combat insulin resistance, but exercise is the best treatment.
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    A Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, answered on behalf of
    First, let me give a quick explanation of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance means that the body is not responding as well to insulin-the insulin made by the body itself, or insulin injected as a treatment for diabetes-as well as it should. Someone with insulin resistance may require two or three times (maybe even more) the amount of insulin to keep blood sugar normal as someone who has normal responsiveness to insulin.
    Precisely what causes insulin resistance has been a major focus of research in diabetes for several decades. Insulin resistance is clearly the result of abdominal obesity. Fat cells in and around the internal organs of the abdomen make a variety of chemicals that are associated with insulin resistance, so the greater the abdominal obesity-the greater the waist circumference-the more insulin resistant someone is going to be and the greater his or her likelihood of having diabetes. 
    So obesity causes insulin resistance. The question is whether, in turn, insulin resistance also causes obesity, thereby leading to a viscous cycle. To some extent, this is probably the case. One concern here is that insulin is an anabolic hormone, meaning a hormone that promotes energy storage, including fat storage. When you take in calories, some of those calories are going to be stored as fat, and insulin is an important part of this process. Obviously if you don’t take in the calories, you will not store the fat, so those with insulin resistance can still lose weight if they reduce their calorie intake and increase their calorie expenditure through exercise. The weight loss then leads to improved insulin sensitivity, and the problem becomes steadily less severe as someone loses weight. 
    If someone who is insulin resistant has difficulty losing weight despite good dietary and lifestyle habits, metformin may be of help. Metformin is a medication used to treat diabetes, and it works, in part, by enhancing the body’s responsiveness to insulin. The drugs tend to suppress appetite somewhat, and those taking metformin have a fall in blood sugar as well as a decline in insulin levels. This medication sometimes helps people lose weight, and it is generally safe to take as long as you do not have kidney problems. It is available generically and is not very expensive.
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    Medications for insulin resistance are a class of medications to help people with type 2 diabetes. These medications work in different ways but ultimately reduce the amount of glucose circulating in the blood or increase the body's natural production of insulin. Two common medications that people have probably heard of are metformin and glipizide.
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