Is It Prostate Cancer or Something Else?

Is It Prostate Cancer or Something Else?

Symptoms can be misleading. Find out what to watch for—and when.

Prostate cancer, cancer that occurs when the cells in the prostate gland start to grow uncontrollably, is the second most common cancer among American men. And according to the American Cancer Society, one out of seven men will be diagnosed with the cancer during their lifetime. The statistics sound alarming, but the fact is that most men with prostate cancer don’t die from it. Still, that doesn’t make it any less serious of a disease, which is why it’s important to become familiar with symptoms that may warrant a call to your healthcare provider.

We talked to John McGill, MD, of Southeastern Urology Associates and Coliseum Medical Centers in Macon, Georgia, to learn more about symptoms and how the cancer is diagnosed.

What are the symptoms?
“There are no clear symptoms associated with early or organ-confined prostate cancer,” says Dr. McGill. Unfortunately, once symptoms do appear, the cancer is often already at an advanced stage. “In advanced prostate cancer, men may develop bone pain, blood in the urine or obstruction of the bladder or ureters, which drain urine from the kidneys,” says McGill. 

Why are symptoms confusing?
What’s most vexing about prostate cancer is that the symptoms aren’t unique to the disease, making it challenging to diagnose. Here’s a breakdown of some symptoms that could suggest something else:

  • Bone pain: “Differentiating bone pain from general aches and pains can be quite difficult,” says McGill. “This is one reason why bone pain by itself does not necessarily mean a person has advanced prostate cancer.” 
  • Bloody urine: Hematuria, or blood in the urine, may indicate advanced prostate cancer, but it can also indicate conditions like kidney stones, urinary tract infections or abnormal growths in the kidneys, ureters or bladder.
  • Urination problems: According to the American Cancer Society, trouble urinating is more likely a sign of benign prostatic hyperplasia, a non-cancerous condition related to the prostate growth.

How is it diagnosed? 
Certain screenings may detect prostate cancer in its early stages. Even for those without symptoms, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood tests and digital rectal exams (DRE) may help find the cancer while it’s easier to treat. If these tests show any abnormalities, a prostate biopsy—a procedure that involves removing small samples of the prostate to examine under a microscope—may be recommended.

But prostate cancer diagnosis can be complicated, says McGill. Early screenings like the PSA and DRE tests may not be completely accurate. They may produce false-positive results—positive results even when cancer isn’t present—or false-negative results, indicating that a man doesn’t have cancer when he does. Sometimes, elevated PSA levels signal positive results for prostate cancer so men have biopsies, radiation or surgery. But many times prostate cancer progresses so slowly that it would never cause problems, and these procedures have side effect risks of their own. 

The bottomline?
McGill says staying up-to-date with your regular urologist and general practitioner appointments is the best way to keep your prostate health in check. “The American Urological Association strongly recommends that men ages 55 to 69 discuss the risks and benefits of PSA screenings, ultimately with shared decision-making with their physician,” he says. And men at increased risk, such as those with a family history of the disease and African Americans should report any symptoms to their healthcare provider, even if they are outside of the recommended ages for screening.

Medically reviewed in December 2018.

What’s the Latest: Prostate Cancer
What’s the Latest: Prostate Cancer
After skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer type and the number two cause of cancer death among US men. Because of that, scientists a...
Read More
What is the role of the HPC1 gene in prostate cancer?
The genetic defects involved in the development of prostate cancer are only beginning to be understo...
More Answers
How often should men in their 70s be screened for prostate cancer?
Dr. Daniel R. Spogen, MDDr. Daniel R. Spogen, MD
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends not screening men for prostate cancer afte...
More Answers
Do All Prostate Cancers Need to Be Treated?
Do All Prostate Cancers Need to Be Treated?