What are the risks associated with water for injection?

Because the process of injection involves penetration of the skin, body tissues, veins, and the bloodstream, certain risks accompany any intravenous (IV) injection. However, self-administration is more likely to increase these risks, as complications are rare when a trained medical professional administers the injection.

Rarely, too much liquid is injected into the body, which results in a condition called hypervolemia.

Some people experience complications due to extravasation, or the leakage of the diluted water solution into the tissue surrounding the vein.

There is also a risk of experiencing blood clots (thrombosis). Although blood clots may be caused by a number of factors, people who have a vein injury due to surgery or injections risk the formation of an air bubble in their bloodstream. Air bubbles can travel through the bloodstream and may eventually clog a smaller vein.

In many cases, people receiving IV injections have been known to experience symptoms of thrombophlebitis, which is a blood clot that forms in a vein close to the surface. Symptoms of thrombophlebitis include skin redness, pain near the affected vein, and swelling.

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