What causes secondary dysmenorrhea?

Secondary dysmenorrhea is often caused by abnormal tissue growth, infection, cysts, fibroids, or a small cervical opening. Abnormal tissue growth, like with endometriosis and adenomyosis, where the tissue grows outside the uterus or into the uterine muscle causes pain during menstruation and leads to secondary dysmenorrhea.

Infections from sexually transmitted diseases or bacterial infections can cause inflammation and tenderness in the pelvic area and result in secondary dysmenorrhea. Fluid filled sacs, or cysts, on your ovaries can increase pressure and pain during menstruation. Fibroids, which are non-cancerous tumors in the uterus, can also be the cause of menstrual pain.

Some women suffer from a small cervical opening, known as cervical stenosis. The opening does not allow the proper amount of blood to flow through the cervix during menstruation. This can lead to build up of painful and uncomfortable pressure in the uterus and cause secondary dysmenorrhea.

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Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.