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How is surgery used to treat androgen insensitivity syndrome?

There are a few different surgeries that may be used to treat various symptoms of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Many women with complete AIS have abnormally-located testes that are usually in the abdomen. If they're not removed, they may become cancerous. Surgery is often done to remove the undescended testes after a girl with AIS goes through puberty. Surgery may also be used on the genitals. If a woman with complete AIS has a shorter vagina, surgery may be performed to lengthen it, usually to make it easier to have sex. In people with partial AIS, genital reconstructive surgery may be performed when children are very young so their genitals match the gender they were assigned. This is becoming less and less popular, though, as doctors now recommend waiting to do this kind of surgery until children are old enough to choose for themselves. In those cases, genital surgery (such as clitoris reduction) may be performed later in life.

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