Medical Techniques & Procedures

Medical Techniques & Procedures

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    Your anesthesia professional will speak to you before surgery and decide if you need a breathing tube. The decision is based on your type of surgery and anesthesia, as well as your medical history and physical exam. 

    Typically, a breathing tube is not needed during local anesthesia, regional anesthesia and sedation. However, if you have general anesthesia, then a breathing tube may be needed. Patients who are more likely to need a breathing tube include those who:
    • ate or drank prior to surgery
    • have medical problems that cause acid reflux
    • are vomiting or are extremely overweight
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    On the day of ambulatory (or outpatient) surgery, your child should not eat solid food. The anesthesiologist may allow liquids to be given. Parents should plan to stay in the facility during their child's procedure and to make every attempt to have siblings stay home. 

    Upon arrival at the surgical facility, a nurse will check vital signs and orient you and your child. The anesthesiologist will conduct a preoperative interview, physical exam and discuss the anesthetic plan. For most children, general anesthesia is the preferred form of anesthesia. Anesthesia may begin with intravenous medication, or with breathing anesthetic through a facemask, and then, an intravenous line may be placed after your child is asleep. This may be supplemented by local anesthesia injected by the surgeon or anesthesiologist to control postoperative pain. After surgery, your child will awaken in a recovery area where a nurse will check vital signs, the surgical site and pain control.

    Before going home, your child may be offered something to drink. Parents will receive detailed instructions regarding post-anesthetic and post-surgical care. All questions should be answered and you should feel comfortable taking your child home from the facility.
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    Specialized liquid nutrition, as well as fluids, can be given through the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. If the PEG tube is placed because of swallowing difficulty (e.g., after a stroke), there will still be restrictions on oral intake. Although a few PEG patients may continue to eat or drink after the procedure, this is a very important issue to discuss with your physician. 
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    Side effects of embolization include vomiting, nausea, and fever. It may also cause abdominal pain. You could also experience tiredness for a few weeks after the procedure.

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    A , Cardiology (Cardiovascular Disease), answered
    Below are common culprits that are often missed by doctors in the initial exams and only caught in later follow-ups, many by a second-opinion doc. The maladies below have vague symptoms or hide behind other diseases:

    • Chronic fatigue syndrome, which doesn't have any specific diagnostic test.
    • Depression, which can cause of variety of physical and emotional symptoms.
    • Fibromyalgia, which, like chronic fatigue syndrome, can cause of wide range of symptoms.
    • Glaucoma, which can lead to blindness but doesn't cause symptoms early on.
    • Hemochromotosis, a genetic disease that causes iron overload in some of the body's organs, which has no early symptoms.
    • High blood pressure, or hypertension. High blood pressure may have no early symptoms.
    • Impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, which can produce mild symptoms that occur gradually over time.
    • Kidney disease, which can be life-threatening and may have few early symptoms.
    • Osteoporosis, which causes thinning bones, and often is only diagnosed after the person suffers from a bone fracture.
    • Polycystic ovary syndrome, which causes hormonal and menstrual symptoms and can lead to infertility.
    • Sexually-transmitted diseases like syphilis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, gonorrhea and HPV. These diseases may have no major symptoms, or may take years for them to show up. Many masquerade as arthritis and dementia.
    • Dementia can often be due to mercury or lead poisoning, though that cause is rarely diagnosed first.
    • Thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism, which can cause vague symptoms like fatigue and weakness.
    • Mental fogginess caused by medication overload, depression, or fluid in the brain, which many physician wrongly attribute to Alzheimer's disease.
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    A answered

    A false negative test result is one that fails to note a condition that really does exist. The consequences are clear. You could have a serious condition that goes untreated. An example would be a mammogram that fails to detect cancerous tumors.

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    The best study for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a polysomnogram, which is performed in a sleep lab. During this overnight test, electrodes (sticky patches), an oxygen probe, and other sensors record information while you sleep.
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    After ambulatory (or outpatient) surgery, be prepared to go home and finish your recovery there. Patients often experience drowsiness and minor after-effects following ambulatory anesthesia, including muscle aches, sore throat and occasional dizziness or headaches. Nausea may also be present, but vomiting is less common. These side effects usually decline rapidly following surgery, but it may take several days before they are gone completely. The majority of patients do not feel up to their typical activities the next day, usually due to general tiredness or surgical discomfort. Plan to take it easy for a few days until you feel back to normal.
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    A , Plastic Surgery, answered
    The carbon dioxide laser became popular in 1994 as a high-tech method of wrinkle reduction. Computers shape the high-intensity light energy to patterns of squares, lines, or circles. Like an artist paints with different brushes, the surgeon uses these varying shapes to vaporize different zones of the face. The initial results were dramatic and the laser soared in popularity, but as with so many new technologies, problems and complications arose.

    Pigment changes and scarring are common with this laser, and some of these changes do not appear for months or years. The laser was expected to cause fewer pigment problems than deep chemical peeling because the pigment producing cells (melanocytes) were thought to be preserved. Yet over half of patients have lightened skin after the laser.
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    A , Psychiatry, answered
    What type of set-up is used to administer transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?

    For transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), patients sit in a dental chair and wear a small headset. They can watch TV or read while receiving treatment, says Tarique Perera, MD, a psychiatrist with Contemporary Care of Connecticut.