Early and periodic screening, diagnosis and treatment (EPSDT) Medicaid services are required for the categorically qualified under age 21, but optional for medically needy (those who qualify as a result of high medical expenses that reduce income below a state's Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) limit).
Required EPSDT dental services:
- Screening: Screening services provided at intervals meeting reasonable dental standards, and at such other intervals to determine illness and which shall, at a minimum, include dental services that are provided at intervals meeting reasonable dental standards and at other intervals as medically necessary to determine the existence of illness, and which shall, at a minimum, include relief of pain and infections; restoration of teeth; and maintenance of dental health. Although an oral screening may be a part of a physical examination, it does not substitute for examination through direct referral to a dentist. A direct oral referral is required for every child in accordance with a state's periodicity schedule and at other intervals as medically necessary.
- General care: Dental care, at as early an age as necessary, needed for relief of pain, infections, restoration of teeth, and maintenance of dental health.
- Emergency services: Services necessary to control bleeding, relieve pain, eliminate acute infection; operative procedures which are required to prevent pulpal death and the imminent loss of teeth; treatment of injuries to the teeth or supporting structures; palliative therapy for pericoronitis associated with impacted teeth.
- Preventive Services: Instruction in self-care oral hygiene procedures; cleanings; sealants when appropriate to prevent pit and fissure caries.
- Therapeutic Services: Pulp therapy for permanent and primary teeth; restoration of carious permanent and primary teeth with silver amalgam, silicate cement, plastic materials and stainless steel crowns; scalings and curettage; maintenance of space for posterior primary teeth lost permanently; and provision of removable prosthesis when masticatory function is impaired or when existing prosthesis is unserviceable; and orthodontic treatment when medically necessary to correct handicapping malocclusion.
- Nursing Facilities: Nursing facilities must provide routine dental services (to the extent they are covered under the state plan) and emergency dental services to meet the needs of each resident.