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What are the risk factors for persistent human papillomavirus infection?

It is important that women understand that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary but not a sufficient factor for the development of nearly all the precancerous and cancerous cervical changes in the cervix. Nevertheless, risk factors known to increase the likelihood of persistent infection include a compromised immune system, either naturally or drug-induced (by steroid use, for example), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or cigarette smoking. In fact, HPV is 250 times more likely to cause cervical cancer in smokers than the likelihood that smoking will cause lung cancer.

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What You Need to Know About the HPV Vaccine
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More than 42 percent of Americans ages 18 to 59 are infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV), according to a 2013-2014 survey from the National Ce...
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I think safety is the biggest concern parents have about the HPV vaccine. Obviously, parents want to...
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When Should Women Start Being Tested for Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?
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Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.