What are the different types of cardiomyopathy?

Piedmont Heart Institute
Administration

The different types of cardiomyopathy are as follows:

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common type of the disease. It mostly occurs in adults aged 20 to 60. Men are more likely than women to have this type of cardiomyopathy.

Dilated cardiomyopathy affects the heart's ventricles and atria. These are the lower and upper chambers of the heart, respectively.

Dilated cardiomyopathy also can lead to heart valve problems, arrhythmias, and blood clots in the heart.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is very common and can affect people of any age. About 1 out of every 500 people has this type of cardiomyopathy. It affects men and women equally.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young people, including young athletes.

This type of cardiomyopathy occurs when the walls of the ventricles thicken. Despite this thickening, the ventricle size often remains normal.

Rarely, people who have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have no signs or symptoms, and the condition doesn't affect their lives. Others have severe symptoms and complications, such as serious arrhythmias, an inability to exercise, or extreme fatigue with little physical activity.

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy tends to mostly affect older adults. In this type of the disease, the ventricles become stiff and rigid. This is due to abnormal tissue, such as scar tissue, replacing the normal heart muscle.

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a rare type of cardiomyopathy. ARVD occurs when the muscle tissue in the right ventricle dies and is replaced with scar tissue.

ARVD usually affects teens or young adults. It can cause SCA in young athletes. Fortunately, such deaths are rare.

This answer from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute has been reviewed and/or edited by Dr. William D. Knopf.

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