How is stage II oropharyngeal cancer treated?

Stage II oropharyngeal cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or distant organs, so surgery and radiation are the two main treatment modalities. External beam radiation therapy involves the use of high energy beams of radiation that are directed at the cancer from outside the patient. Internal radiation therapy, also called brachytherapy, involves the use of devices which allow for the placement of a radioactive source very close to the primary tumor. The decision to use surgery, external beam radiation, or brachytherapy, depends on, among other things, the location of the cancer within the oropharynx.

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