What are different types of focal dystonias?

Focal dystonias affect a specific group of muscles or body part. The following are different types of focal dystonias:
  • Blepharospasm: dystonia that affects the muscles of the eyelids and brow
  • Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis): dystonia that affects the neck and sometimes the shoulders
  • Oromandibular dystonia (cranial dystonia): symptoms include forceful contractions of the face, jaw and/or tongue
  • Spasmodic dysphonia (laryngeal dystonia): dystonia that affects the vocal cords
  • Hand dystonia (writer's cramp): dystonia of the fingers, hand and/or forearm.
  • Lower limb dystonia: dystonia of the leg, foot and/or toes.

Continue Learning about Dystonia


When your muscles contract involuntarily, the condition is called dystonia. Dystonia causes a twisting or clenching of whatever body part is affected. For example, when you have a stroke, the affected arm and hand may be clenched ...

and held in a strange position. Dystonia can be very mild or very severe. It can make your life very difficult and this can lead to frustration, depression or anxiety. See your doctor to treat your symptoms and talk over your frustrations.

Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.