How are torticollis and dystonia related in toddlers?

Although the term spasmodic torticollis is used to describe cervical dystonia, the word torticollis actually refers to any abnormal twisting of the neck. In other words, the word torticollis does not necessarily mean dystonia.

Torticollis that occurs very early in life (usually within the first few weeks) is not a true dystonia. This condition is called infant torticollis, and there are many different reasons why a baby may have torticollis. The most common form of torticollis in infants is congenital torticollis. Congenital torticollis usually improves with physical therapy; however, surgery may be needed.

A toddler who develops torticollis or an irregular neck posture may be affected by a host of conditions including hiatal hernia (with vomiting, feeding problems and posturing of neck during feeding), double vision (producing head tilt), lack of oxygen or high bilirubin counts during the perinatal period (producing cerebral palsy), severe brain infection (encephalitis), head or neck trauma, toxin exposure, brain or spinal tumors or vascular malformations, specific kinds of brain cysts and certain chemical disorders, such as Leigh's disease. These conditions may generally be assessed with brain and neck imaging and blood and urine analysis.

Cervical dystonia that affects adults usually occurs after age 30. Children who develop true dystonia rarely begin with symptoms in the neck.

Continue Learning about Dystonia


When your muscles contract involuntarily, the condition is called dystonia. Dystonia causes a twisting or clenching of whatever body part is affected. For example, when you have a stroke, the affected arm and hand may be clenched ...

and held in a strange position. Dystonia can be very mild or very severe. It can make your life very difficult and this can lead to frustration, depression or anxiety. See your doctor to treat your symptoms and talk over your frustrations.

Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.