Digestive Health

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    Surgical or endoscopic procedures may be warranted to remove the gallbladder, or remove stones from the ducts if a child has gallstones or the gallbladder is not functioning normally.

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    Nausea is the sensation of having the urge to vomit. Vomiting may or may not occur as a result of nausea. Some describe the sensation of nausea as an unsettled feeling in the stomach, or queasiness. Nausea is not a disease but a symptom of a wide variety of conditions, ranging from viral and bacterial infections, to motion sickness, to food poisoning, to abscesses of the brain. Certain medications can cause nausea.

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    Proctitis refers to inflammation of the lining of the rectum. It can be caused by previous radiation therapy for various cancers, medications, infections or a limited form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It may cause the sensation that you didn't completely empty your bowels after a bowel movement, and may give you the frequent urge to have a bowel movement. Other symptoms include passing mucus through the rectum, rectal bleeding and pain in the area of the anus and rectum. Treatment for proctitis depends on the cause. Your doctor will discuss the appropriate course of action with you.
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    During proctoscopy, a lighted tube is inserted into the anus, allowing the physician to completely examine the entire rectum.
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    A , OBGYN (Obstetrics & Gynecology), answered

    The most common cause for a rectocele is obstetric trauma. During a vaginal delivery, the connective tissue between the rectum and vagina can be torn, and then years after the vaginal delivery this weakness in connective tissue can form a hernia in which the rectum bulges into the vagina.

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    A Internal Medicine, answered on behalf of
    By and large, microscopic colitis can be treated with a medication called budesonide, which is a form of a steroid with fewer systemic side effects than prednisone. That being said, there are other nonprescription treatments for microscopic colitis including Pepto-Bismol. Taking two tablets of Pepto-Bismol four times a day -- or anti-diarrheals -- is an effective treatment for some people with microscopic colitis. Some of the medicines used for ulcerative colitis -- such as the 5-aminosalicylates or mesalamine therapies, which coat the lining of the colon -- are relatively safe and are also used in the treatment of microscopic colitis.
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    A , Family Medicine, answered

    For one or two episodes of vomiting, you should cautiously hydrate with sips of an electrolyte drink such as Gatorade and wait and see. However, for those occasional wicked stomach viruses that cause nonstop throwing up all night, reach for a prescription that you should keep on hand: Phenergan (promethazine).

    This drug comes in suppositories as well as pills. When a family member is ready to deal with a suppository, they really need it.

    Note that Phenergan makes you sleepy, which is often a desired side effect, but it also can be addictive -- this is for infrequent intense nausea, not for daily use.

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    Many people believe that too much gas causes abdominal bloating. However, people who complain of bloating often have normal amounts and distribution of gas. They may just be unusually aware of gas in the digestive tract.

    Doctors believe that bloating is usually the result of an intestinal disorder, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The cause of IBS is unknown, but may involve abnormal movements and contractions of intestinal muscles and increased pain sensitivity in the intestines. These disorders may give a sensation of bloating because of increased sensitivity to gas.

    Any disease that causes intestinal inflammation or obstruction, such as Crohn?s disease or colon cancer, may also cause abdominal bloating. In addition, people who have had many operations, internal hernias, or bands of internal scar tissue called adhesions, may experience bloating or pain. Finally, eating a lot of fatty food can delay stomach emptying and cause bloating and discomfort, but not necessarily too much gas.

    This answer is based on the source infromation from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 
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    A , Cardiology (Cardiovascular Disease), answered
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    Up to a third of common belly surgeries like appendectomy or hysterectomy lead to a life-threatening complication called small bowel obstruction. In this video, Dr. Oz explains how this common emergency develops, and describes the symptoms you should watch for if you've ever had a surgeon touch your belly.


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    When strictures (narrowing of the esophagus) are present, caused when the damaged lining of the esophagus becomes thick and hardened, a procedure called dilation is used. During dilation, an instrument gently stretches the strictures and expands the opening of the esophagus.