Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus (MEL-ih-tus), often referred to as diabetes, is characterized by high blood glucose (sugar) levels that result from the body’s inability to produce enough insulin and/or effectively utilize the insulin. Diabetes is a serious, life-long condition and the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism (the body's way of digesting food and converting it into energy). There are three forms of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that accounts for five- to 10-percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes may account for 90- to 95-percent of all diagnosed cases. The third type of diabetes occurs in pregnancy and is referred to as gestational diabetes. Left untreated, gestational diabetes can cause health issues for pregnant women and their babies. People with diabetes can take preventive steps to control this disease and decrease the risk of further complications.

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    A , Naturopathic Medicine, answered

    It was used to be thought that the brain was not affected by insulin. This belief was based upon a false assumption that there were no insulin receptors in the brain. However, insulin receptors have now been discovered in nearly every region of the brain, especially those regions in charge of controlling appetite. In insulin-sensitive people, a rise of insulin after meals results in a promotion of satiety through its action in the brain. However, in those with insulin resistance, even the excessive insulin levels experienced after meals no longer result in a significant sense of satiety.

    In normal individuals, it has been shown that regions of the brain responsible for appetite regulation respond to after-meal elevations in insulin by significantly increasing their intake of glucose and, subsequently, increasing the metabolic activity in these regions. In particular, the brain regions most responsible for appetite, such as the hypothalamus, readily respond to insulin. This reaction to insulin results in a decrease in appetite and a sense of satiety. In contrast, those with insulin resistance have been shown to lack this increase in metabolic activity in these important brain regions following a significant rise in insulin levels. We at the Hunger Free Forever program now know that the brain becomes insulin resistant along with the rest of the body, and that this insulin resistance plays an important role in the loss of after-meal satiety that accompanies weight gain. Think of the appetite control center having an "off" button for appetite that will only respond to insulin. With insulin resistance, the appetite never really gets shut down.
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    Compared to the general population, African Americans are disproportionately affected by diabetes:
    • 3.7 million, or 14.7 percent of all African Americans aged 20 years or older have diabetes.
    • African Americans are 1.8 times more likely to have diabetes as non Hispanic whites.
    • 25 percent of African Americans between the ages of 65 and 74 have diabetes.
    • 1 in 4 African American women over 55 years of age has diabetes.
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    A good source of information about these devices is the American Diabetes Association Consumer Guide published yearly by Diabetes Forecast, the members’ magazine of the American Diabetes Association. The Consumer Guide is also available online at forecast.diabetes.org/consumerguide.
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    People with diabetes are often labeled non-compliant when they don’t have perfect glucose control, don’t follow the instructions from their healthcare providers or don't take their medications as prescribed. There are many reasons some people with diabetes are non-compliant, ranging from emotional, financial and physical barriers for the person to uninformed and ignorant healthcare providers. Another factor is limited access to the best therapies currently available for many people. 
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    In people without diabetes, the pancreas makes a steady amount of insulin throughout the day and night. This is called basal insulin. It is the small amount of insulin the pancreas releases all the time. The pancreas also releases an extra boost of insulin when you eat. This is called a bolus of insulin.
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    A , Cardiology (Cardiovascular Disease), answered
    Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
    About 5% to 10% of all those with diabetes have type 1, which means they make little or no insulin. Watch the video to learn more about insulin and diabetes.


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    A Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, answered on behalf of
    What are some of the myths about diabetes?
    One of the biggest myths about diabetes is that a patient has little control over the outcome, says Scripps Health endocrinologist Athena Philis-Tsimikas, MD. Many cultures have their own unique myths about diabetes, as she explains in this video.
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    Discovered relatively recently, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) -- sometimes called type 1.5 -- accounts for an estimated 10% of people with diabetes. LADA has been characterized as a slowly progressing version of type 1, with insulin dependence usually developing over a period of about six years (rather than the immediate dependence at the time of diagnosis seen in people with type 1). Research into the definition and development of LADA is ongoing.
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    Atypical diabetes is a rare form of diabetes. Atypical diabetes, like type 1, is diagnosed when an individual presents with diabetic ketoacidosis. However, unlike type 1, people with atypical diabetes spontaneously go into remission and become insulin-independent, usually a few weeks after being diagnosed. They also do not have the antibodies found in people with type 1. A dramatic decrease in the amount of insulin needed in the weeks following diagnosis may be a sign of atypical diabetes. Many people with atypical diabetes relapse within two years of diagnosis and require oral medications or low-dose insulin therapy to manage their blood sugar. Others, however, remain insulin-independent for the rest of their lives.
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    A answered
    People with diabetes often need other medications such as a statin to control cholesterol and blood pressure-lowering drugs. Some drugs can increase your response to insulin; others can reduce it. Those that may increase the blood sugar-lowering effects of insulin include ACE inhibitors, fibrates, certain antidepressants, most oral antidiabetes medications, some anti-arrhythmia drugs, certain pain relievers, hormones and antibiotics.

    Drugs that can reduce the blood sugar-lowering effects of insulin include certain steroids; niacin; diuretics; albuterol; certain hormone medications like thyroid hormones, estrogen and progesterones in oral contraceptives; as well as some psychiatric medications such as olanzapine and clozapine.

    Beta blockers, clonidine and lithium can make you more susceptible to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), while pentamidine can cause hypoglycemia sometimes followed by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).

    Remind every healthcare professional who prescribes any drug for you that you take insulin, and ask if the drug will affect your blood sugar levels.