Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus (MEL-ih-tus), often referred to as diabetes, is characterized by high blood glucose (sugar) levels that result from the body’s inability to produce enough insulin and/or effectively utilize the insulin. Diabetes is a serious, life-long condition and the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism (the body's way of digesting food and converting it into energy). There are three forms of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that accounts for five- to 10-percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes may account for 90- to 95-percent of all diagnosed cases. The third type of diabetes occurs in pregnancy and is referred to as gestational diabetes. Left untreated, gestational diabetes can cause health issues for pregnant women and their babies. People with diabetes can take preventive steps to control this disease and decrease the risk of further complications.

Recently Answered

  • 4 Answers
    A

    You’ll need to make sure that your calorie and carbohydrate intake is balanced with your medication and physical activity. A dietitian or diabetes educator can help you come up with a meal plan that fits your goals and includes foods you like.

    Registered Dietitian (RD): A health care professional who advises people about meal planning, nutrition, and weight control. A dietitian who is also a Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE) has additional training in diabetes management and can assist you with your overall diabetes care.

    Diabetes Educator: A health care professional who teaches people with diabetes how to manage their disease. A diabetes educator can also be a Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE). This means he or she has additional expertise in all areas of diabetes care and has successfully passed a national exam.

     

    See All 4 Answers
  • 1 Answer
    A
    A , Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, answered
    Sensor lag refers to the real-time effect of CGM sensor readings lagging "behind” fingerstick meter readings.This happens because the interstitial fluid glucose that the sensor measures tends to lag behind the capillary glucose that the fingerstick meter reads, especially when the blood sugar is changing rapidly.
  • 3 Answers
    A

    Too much dietary salt or sodium can increase blood pressure. People with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, may already have high blood pressure, so they may need to reduce their sodium intake.

    • Put the saltshaker away, and use less or no salt when cooking.
    • Read food labels to assess the sodium content (80% of your sodium intake comes from processed foods).
    • If you are using canned vegetables, rinse them to remove the salt or choose no-salt-added or reduced-sodium options.
    • Avoid fast foods.
    • Use flavorings such as herbs and spices to make your food tastier.
    • Cook using fresh foods whenever possible.
    See All 3 Answers
  • 1 Answer
    A
    A , Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, answered
    Sampling lag refers to the real-time effect of CGM sensor readings lagging “behind” fingerstick meter readings. This is caused by the sensor’s sampling schedule not being lined up with the fingerstick meter.
  • 1 Answer
    A
    A , Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, answered
    The sensor is like the the drug-sniffing dog of a CGM system. It is commonly a wire-like probe that is inserted under your skin and rests in the interstitial fluid to measure the glucose level of your body.
  • 2 Answers
    A

    People with diabetes have the same requirements for vitamins and minerals as people without diabetes. You are most likely getting all the vitamins and minerals you need if you are eating a diverse diet rich in vegetables, fruits, cereals, and grains. The exception to this may be calcium (to prevent osteoporosis) or vitamin D (if you live in the north or have a darker complexion), which you may need to get from a supplement, if directed by your health care provider.

    See All 2 Answers
  • 1 Answer
    A
    A , Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, answered
    Non-invasive diabetes treatment systems are more of a dream than a fact. In theory, a non-invasive system offers the ability to check blood glucose without having to break the skin. This would make it easy and painless for those people who like to whine about having to “poke their fingers.” In theory, there are dozens of ways that a non-invasive system could work, but in point of fact, it’s proving devilishly complicated. By one estimate, over 30 start-up companies have gone bankrupt in the last dozen years trying to make non-invasive blood glucose testing work.
  • 2 Answers
    A
    A , Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, answered
    “Excursion” simply means fluctuations in your blood sugar, but the term is usually used when talking about how much the blood sugar numbers change with meals. Doctors will say that your meal-related “excursions” shouldn’t be more than a certain number. For example, I often tell my patients that an excursion of no more than 40 to 60 mg/dL glucose with a meal indicates very good control. An example would be a person whose pre-meal number is around 90 with a rise to about 140 maximum after eating. That would qualify as an “excursion” of 50 points -- pretty close to the kind of change you would see in someone without diabetes. The concept is also helpful in knowing whether someone has a problem with blood sugar control primarily in the fasting setting or after eating. 

    For example, let’s say a person takes a combination of long- and short-acting insulin and she has a hemoglobin A1c of 8.5. She needs to do better, but should there be adjustment to the long-acting insulin, the short-acting insulin or both? Well, if the fasting or pre-meal glucose levels are high (let’s say around 220) but the meal-related excursions are typically only around 50 mg/dL (from about 220 to about 270 on average), then you know that the fast-acting insulin doses are generally correct, but the long-acting insulin dose is too low. If the person took enough long-acting insulin to get the fasting sugar down to around 100, then with meals that 50 point excursion would be just about perfect.
    See All 2 Answers
  • 1 Answer
    A
    A , Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, answered
    Enzymes are substances produced by living cells that work like building contractors.

    Some enzymes are like the demolition crew, breaking substances down into their component parts; and others are like the construction crew, helping cells build new substances from parts and pieces. All enzymes are highly specialized, and there are over 3,000 different kinds in nature. For what it is worth, the enzyme glucose oxidase, used in CGM sensors, comes from the fungus aspergilus niger, which despite its name, apparently has nothing to do with asparagus.
  • 1 Answer
    A
    A , Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, answered
    The term 'basal rate' in diabetes treatment refers to small amounts of insulin delivered by an insulin pump every hour to keep a diabetic’s blood sugar in control between meals and overnight.