What are the stages of testicular cancer?

Mark S. Litwin, MD
Urology
As with any cancer, once we make the testicular cancer diagnosis, we have to classify it’s stage. Staging tells the doctor how far the cancer has spread.

These are the stages of testicular cancer:
  • Stage I means the cancer is contained in the testicle.
  • Stage II means it has spread to the lymph nodes. The lymph nodes involved are usually up in the upper abdomen next to the aorta, the vena cava, the kidneys and other structures of the abdomen. This area is called the retroperitoneum.
  • Stage IIII is the most advanced. It has spread to the lungs, the brain and occasionally to the liver or other areas of the body. It is still usually curable.
When it comes to cancer, testicular cancer is almost unique. Even in patients with widely spread (metastatic) prostate cancer, the cancer can very often be completely cured. Men may live normal, happy and healthy lives. The key is to find the proper medical center and doctors to treat your cancer.
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Administration

Tumors (T) are definitively staged based on findings at surgery to remove the testicle and or lymph nodes in the abdomen. Tools used to determine the stage of the testicular cancer include a microscopic examination of the removed testicle and lymph nodes, CT scan, and other studies as indicated. The various stages of testicular cancer are:

  • T0 – No evidence of primary testicular tumors
  • T1 – Tumor confined to the testicle
  • T2 – Tumor invading outside the capsule of the testicle
  • T3 – Tumor invading the tubes which transport sperm
  • T4 – Tumor invading blood vessels which supply the testicles
  • T4B – Invades the scrotum
  • N0 – No tumor in any lymph nodes
  • N1 – Less than 6 nodes positive for cancer, no nodes greater than 2 cm
  • N2 – Greater than 6 positive nodes, any node greater than 2 cm
  • N3 – Masses, disease and lymph nodes in the back
  • N+ – Tumor has spread to multiple sites outside the lymph nodes

Continue Learning about Testicular Cancer

Testicular Cancer

Highly treatable, testicular cancer is one of the most curable types of cancer.Even when this rare cancer spreads to nearby lymph nodes, you have a 99% chance of surviving, and treatment is so effective that you have a 1 in 5,000 ...

chance of dying from this disease. Most testicular cancers begin with the abnormal production of the cells that produce immature sperm. Testicular cancer typically only affects one of the testes. Although most risk factors are not fully understood, you are several more times likely to develop this cancer if you have an undescended testicle. This cancer also tends to be more common among 15- to 34-year old males. See your doctor if you notice a mass in one of the testicles, feel fatigued or have an ache in the abdomen or groin. Surgical removal of the affected testicle a procedure called radical inguinal orchiectomy is the principal treatment to cure this cancer.
More

Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.