What are cephalic disorders?

Cephalic disorders are congenital conditions that stem from damage to, or abnormal development of, the budding nervous system. "Cephalic" is a term that means "head" or "head end of the body." "Congenital" means the disorder is present at, and usually before, birth. Although there are many congenital developmental disorders, this fact sheet briefly describes only cephalic conditions.

Cephalic disorders are not necessarily caused by a single factor but areinfluenced by hereditary or genetic conditions and by environmental exposure during pregnancy such as the medication taken by the mother, maternal infection, and exposure to radiation. Some cephalic disorders occur when the cranial sutures (the fibrous joints that connect the bones of the skull) join prematurely. Most cephalic disorders are caused by a disturbance that occurs very early in the development of the fetal nervous system.

The human nervous system develops from a small, specialized plate of cells on the surface of the embryo. Early in development, this plate of cells forms the neural tube, a narrow sheath that closes between the third and fourth weeks of pregnancy to form the brain and the spinal cord of the embryo. Four main processes are responsible for the development of the nervous system: cell proliferation, the process in which nerve cells divide to generate new cells; cell migration, the process in which nerve cells move from their place of origin to the place where they will remain for life; cell differentiation, the process during which cells acquire individual characteristics; and cell death, a natural process in which cells die.

Damage to the developing nervous system is a major cause of chronic, disabling disorders and, sometimes, death in infants, children, and even adults. The degree to which damage to the developing nervous system harms the mind and body varies enormously. Many disabilities are mild enough to allow those afflicted to eventually function independently in society. Others are not. Some infants, children, and adults die; others remain totally disabled; and an even larger population is partially disabled, functioning well below normal capacity throughout life.

This answer is based on source information from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

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