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How is a fine needle aspiration biopsy used to diagnose breast cancer?

In a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, the doctor uses a very thin, hollow needle attached to a syringe to withdraw (aspirate) a small amount of tissue from a suspicious area, which is then looked at under a microscope. The needle used for an FNA biopsy is thinner than the ones used for blood tests.
If the area to be biopsied can be felt, the needle can be guided into the area of the breast change while the doctor is feeling (palpating) it.
If the lump can't be felt easily, the doctor might use ultrasound to watch the needle on a screen as it moves toward and into the mass.
A local anesthetic (numbing medicine) may or may not be used. Because such a thin needle is used for the biopsy, the process of getting the anesthetic may actually be more uncomfortable than the biopsy itself.
Once the needle is in place, fluid is drawn out. If the fluid is clear, the lump is probably a benign cyst. Bloody or cloudy fluid can mean either a benign cyst or, very rarely, a cancer. If the lump is solid, small tissue fragments are drawn out. A pathologist will look at the biopsy tissue or fluid under a microscope to determine if it is cancerous.
While an FNA biopsy is the easiest type of biopsy to have, it has some disadvantages. It can sometimes miss a cancer if the needle is not placed among the cancer cells. And even if cancer cells are found, it is usually not possible to determine if the cancer is invasive. In some cases there may not be enough cells to perform some of the other lab tests that are routinely done on breast cancer specimens. If the FNA biopsy does not provide a clear diagnosis, or your doctor is still suspicious, a second biopsy or a different type of biopsy should be done.

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Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.