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What animal studies have been done to test the effects of anesthetics?

"In one of the earliest studies of anesthetic neurodegeneration in rodents, researchers demonstrated that exposure to midazolam, nitrous oxide, and isoflurane (ISO), in postnatal day seven rats, resulted in widespread histological evidence of apoptosis as well as deficits in spatial reference memory when subjected to behavioral testing. In the Morris water maze, exposed young adults had slower rates of memory acquisition than control animals; when retested as adults, exposed animals also demonstrated impaired retention performance. Similar results have been obtained in nonhuman primates. Neonatal rhesus monkeys exposed to 24 hours of ketamine demonstrated persistent cognitive defects when tested out to three years of age." (Katherine R. Gentry, MD, et al., "Early Developmental Exposure to Volatile Anesthetics Causes Behavioral Defects in Caenorhabditis elegans," Anesthesia & Analgesia, January 2013, pp. 185-189.)

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