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What are the stages of anal cancer?

The following are the stages of anal cancer:

Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)
In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the anus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

Stage I
In stage I, cancer has formed and the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller.

Stage II
In stage II, the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters.

Stage IIIA
In stage IIIA, the tumor may be any size and has spread to either:

Lymph nodes near the rectum; or Nearby organs, such as the vagina, urethra, and bladder.

Stage IIIB
In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size and has spread:

To nearby organs and to lymph nodes near the rectum; or To lymph nodes on one side of the pelvis and/or groin, and may have spread to nearby organs; or To lymph nodes near the rectum and in the groin, and/or to lymph nodes on both sides of the pelvis and/or groin, and may have spread to nearby organs.

Stage IV
In stage IV, the tumor may be any size and cancer may have spread to lymph nodes or nearby organs and has spread to distant parts of the body.

This answer is based on source information from the National Cancer Institute.

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Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.