ADHD

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    A , Family Medicine, answered
    The jury is still out on the actual cause of sleep disorders in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some experts speculate the stimulant medications taken for ADHD may cause difficulties in falling asleep. Some people with ADHD may have problems relaxing at night, causing them to have sleep difficulties. Other problems that add to sleep difficulties include primary sleep disorders, such as restless legs syndrome.
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    A , Family Medicine, answered
    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have problems with learning and concentrating. They may also be hyperactive or have trouble controlling impulses. While the causes of learning disabilities are unknown, these may contribute:

    • Genetics. Learning disabilities may run in families.
    • Brain development. Pregnancy-related concerns may be associated. These include low birth weight, lack of oxygen, and premature birth. Young children receiving head injuries may be at risk.
    • Environmental impacts. Toxins (poisons) can affect infants and young children. Lead paint or pipes in old homes are serious threats. Early poor nutrition may result in later learning disabilities.
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    The brains of people with attention deficit disorder (ADD) work differently. Ideally, when we concentrate, blood flow should increase in the brain, especially in the prefrontal cortex; this increased activity allows us to focus, stay on task and think ahead. In the brains of most people with ADD, blood flow actually goes down when they concentrate, making it harder to stay focused. In other words, the harder they try, the harder it gets.
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    In limbic attention deficit disorder (ADD), the prefrontal cortex is underactive during concentration while the deep limbic area -- which sets your emotional tone, controlling how happy or sad you are -- is overactive. 

    Depression is also associated with overactivity in the deep limbic area, yet a person’s developmental history in addition to some subtle differences on single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) scans (between limbic ADD and depression) helps differentiate between the two conditions. This helps set the best course of treatment to resolve symptoms.

    Limbic ADD SPECT scan findings typically show increased deep limbic activity (thalamus and hypothalamus) at rest and during concentration. There is also decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia during concentration.
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    Inattentive attention deficit disorder (ADD) is the second most common type of ADD. Those suffering with this type are usually quiet, more introverted and appear to daydream a lot. They may be labeled as unmotivated -- even slow or lazy. Inattentive ADD is common in girls and boys but is often missed because children with this type tend to have fewer behavioral problems. They don’t draw the negative attention to themselves as do those with classic ADD. 

    Inattentive ADD single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) scan findings show normal activity at rest, but during concentration there tends to be decreased activity in the underside of the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia.

    Inattentive ADD is the perfect example of why the general term attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) does not fit all ADD types. If clinicians and parents are looking for hyperactivity to reach a diagnosis, those with this type (absent of hyperactivity) may be left untreated and go on living life below their true potential.
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    Classic attention deficit disorder (ADD) is usually evident early in life. As babies, they tend to be colicky, active and wiggly. As children, they tend to be restless, noisy, talkative, impulsive and demanding. Their hyperactivity and conflict-driven behavior gets everyone’s attention early on. 

    Parents of these kids are often tired, overwhelmed and even embarrassed by the behavior of their non-stop and hard-to-control children. Classic ADD tends to be more frequently seen in boys.

    Classic ADD is often called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with an emphasis on the hyperactive behavior trait.

    Classic ADD single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) scan findings show normal activity at rest, but during concentration there tends to be decreased activity in the underside of the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are structures deep within the brain that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is critical to motivation, attention and setting the body’s idle speed.
  • 20 Answers
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    A , Internal Medicine, answered
    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) started rising to fame, at about the same time as Seinfeld and Friends, in the 1990s. It is age and developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interferes with functions at home, work, school, and in social situations. While we all have trouble concentrating, especially after lunch (all except me, of course), and can feel hyper after a huge cup of strong coffee (or gallon—one cup barely wakes me up), the effects wear off and do not affect our ability to function. That’s one of the toughest things about ADHD. The symptoms are so severe that they interfere with your ability to function. Luckily, with help from a skilled therapist and/or consistent doses of medication, many people with ADHD can function well in school and work and thrive socially. Plus, if this involves your child, help is usually available, and the sooner you seek it the better. Your child's school is equipped (usually) to help your child succeed. So talk to your child's teacher, a school counselor, and your doctor to find out what treatment options and courses of action are available to help your child cope with ADHD.
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    A , Psychology, answered
    Below is a list of qualities or elements that adults with attention deficit disorder (ADD) typically need:
    • Excitement
    • Physical activity
    • Constant stimulation
    • Innovation
    • Inventiveness
    • The opportunity to mix it up
    • Flexibility
    • Creativity
    • The ability to create structure rather than follow directions
    • The ability to space out
    • Frequent breaks
    • Self-determination
    • Access to natural world
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    Neurofeedback is a process by which brain waves are monitored and then feedback designed to improve brain-wave patterns is provided to the individual. The feedback may come in the form a visual pattern or audio signal. Children may receive feedback through a video game. The technique is currently being researched, but its effectiveness for people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains uncertain. Additional information should soon be available.

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    A , Family Medicine, answered
    Tics -- rapid, involuntary motions or words -- are not that common with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In fact, only about 7% of individuals with ADHD have tics. Sometimes the medications (stimulants) used to treat ADHD can make tics more apparent to the person and those around them. Tics often occur in older, elementary-aged children (aged 10 to 12), especially if they are exhausted or under stress. These tics are sometimes temporary and go away after a few years.