Robotic surgery on the prostate is best reserved for those with tumors within the confines of the prostate (early stage cancer), no previous extensive abdominal surgery and preferably no history of prostate radiation. Although there is not any absolute contraindication to the robotic approach, patie
The urinary sphincter muscle that provides urinary control is very close to the bottom of the prostate gland and any treatment for prostate cancer can lead to damage or injury of this structure. The consequence of this damage is urinary incontinence which may be temporary or permanent.
The treatment of incontinence following prostate surgery depends on the duration of the problem and the severity of the leakage. Pelvic floor exercises and physical therapy are used for mild incontinence. Surgical reconstruction with male urethral slings and artificial urinary sphincter implant
The staging of solid tumors, such as bladder cancer is based on the TNM system. The T is the extent of the tumor in the organ of origination. The N is based on whether regional lymph nodes are involved with the cancer. The M is based on whether the tumor has metastasized to distant locations in
Treatment for recurrent bladder cancer depends on the severity of the recurrence. For small, low grade (slow growing) cancer, bladder instillations of chemotherapeutic drugs or immunotherapeutic (BCG, Interferon) agents are used. Both are effective in lowering the risk for recurrence.For h
Blood in the urine is often present with kidney infections, but painless bloody urine is rarely due to an infection. High fever, back/flank pain and urinary tract discomfort are typically the signs of a kidney infection with or without visible blood in the urine.
The loss of urine when laughing or coughing is typically due to the loss of bladder and urethral support (pelvic prolapsed) which is a common occurrence after childbirth. The urethral sphincter (muscle) may also lose strength allowing urine to pass involuntarily during these events. This problem...
Bladder training involving holding maneuvers is best reserved for those who have a small bladder capacity. Normal adult bladders should hold 8 to 12 oz (240 - 360 cc) and in some individuals up to 20 oz (600 cc). Urine volumes above this can lead to bladder muscle damage as well as possible kidney d
The robotic approach to removal of the prostate is advantageous over the traditional open method in that with improved visualization of the anatomy the gland can be more meticulously removed. The improved outcomes include faster recovery, lower risk of obstructive scar tissue, faster and more