Neural tube defects occur when the bones of the spine do not correctly form, leaving the spinal cord and its nerves and coverings to protrude out through the skin (or lie just beneath it). The use of folate vitamins during pregnancy has decreased the incidence of neural tube defects. However many...
Kidney stones, once believed to be the domain of adults only, also appear to be increasing among young children. The cause is unknown, but researchers hypothesize the increase in obesity, poor diets--excessive salt, poor water drinking, may be associated with stones. Metabolic abnormalities that lea
Sign/symptoms of kidney tumors include: abdominal pain; abdominal mass; blood in the urine; vomiting; failure to thrive (among others). The prognosis for these tumors has improved greatly with the combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation.
Vesicoureteral reflux is an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into the kidneys.There are 5 grades of reflux - 1 is the mildest and 5 is the most severe.Most children develop grade 1-2 reflux, which fortunately resolves itself over time in the majority of cases. Grade 3 will resolve a
A detailed evaluation in conjunction with pediatric nephrology (the study of kidneys) is necessary. Using shock wave lithotripsy or endoscopy the stone can be disintegrated without the need for surgical incisions. Less commonly, the stones need to be treated with open surgery.
A hydrocele is a collection of fluid along the membrane covering the front and sides of the testicle. The difference between a hernia and a hydrocele: If the fluid from the peritoneum travels through this opening, then the child has a hydrocele. If intestinal contents travel into the scrotum, then..
Prune belly syndrome is an extremely unusual condition. This occurs in males who have a wrinkled abdominal wall as a result of absence of abdominal musculature, bilaterally undescended testes, and other urinary tract anomalies, including an extremely large bladder and severe reflux with dilated uret
The most common genital abnormality seen by pediatric urologists are hypospadias abnormalities. In this condition the urethral opening is not at the tip of the penis but further down on the ventral surface (that is, between the head of the penis and the scrotum). Often this abnormality is associated
Hydronephrosis refers to extra urinary fluid in the kidney. Not a separate disease, but a physical phenomenon that occurs with many diseases, its symptoms, treatment, and prognosis are those of the disease that has caused it.Hydronephrosis can be caused by obstruction of the ureters or bladder outle
Exstrophy is an uncommon congenital bladder anomaly that results when the tissue making up the abdominal wall is deficient and the bladder is a flat sheet on the abdominal wall instead of a sphere inside the pelvis. Urine leaks out of the abdominal wall from the exposed ureteral orifices. This is...
Often urinary tract infection (UTI) is the first sign of a congenital bladder or kidney anomaly. These UTIs may go undiagnosed if there is not a proper examination of the urine. If a true UTI exists then renal and bladder ultrasound as well as a VCUG should be performed to rule out any renal or blad
Tumors of the kidney require surgical excision as well as combined management with pediatric oncology. wilms' tumor (the most common); mesoblastic nephroma; neuroblastoma, found commonly in the adrenal gland, but can be found anywhere along the sympathetic nervous system.