Should I avoid certain foods during pregnancy?
Food safety and pregnancy is a frequently discussed topic. The goal is to maximize the quality of nutrition but also avoid any harmful substance. The best evidence suggest the following simple guidelines:
Raw fruits and vegetables may become contaminated in the growing process. They should always... Full Post
Can taking birth control pills during pregnancy affect my baby?No, taking birth control pills during a pregnancy does not harm the baby or the mother. This information comes from large studies of women, many who did not know they were pregnant while taking pills.
At the same time, the package insert for birth control pills says pregnant women should not take... Full Post
What are the treatment options for osteoporosis?
There are several different groups of medications that reverse osteoporosis. The first choice is a group called bisphosphinates. These include alendronate (Fossamax) and ibandronate (Boniva) among several others. There are special instructions on how to take these medications that are very im... Full Post
Is osteoporosis reversible?
Weight bearing exercise, calcium and vitamin D, and postmenpausal hormones slow down or prevent osteoporosis. Once the bone have actually weakened to the point of osteoporosis, however, other treatments are more effective in reversing the disease.
There are several different groups of medications... Full Post
As a teen, how can I prevent HPV?
There are now vaccinations that prevent you from catching the most common strains of HPV (human papilloma virus). These vaccines are recommended for both boys and girls. Two different products are on the market. One covers the two most common strains of HPV that cause abnormal pap smears, or changes... Full Post
How often should a 67 year old get a pap smear?
A woman who has had normal pap smears and negative HPV tests should continue to have pap smears every 5 years. She may stop having pap smears at age 65. Once Pap smear screening is stopped, it should not be resumed even if she has a new sexual partner.
If a woman has had abnormal pap smears or is HPV positive,... Full Post
Is estrogen progesterone therapy safe?The safety of estrogen and progesterone therapy depends on why you are using it and who is using it. These are the hormones produced by a woman's ovaries. The same hormones are given in low doses as birth control pills/patch/vaginal ring. Women who have a history of blood clots in their vessels,... Full Post
Why have guidelines for getting PAP smears changed?
Pap smear guidelines have changed repeatedly and dramatically over the last 10-15 years. This is because of the explosion of knowledge in the cause of abnormal pap smears, human papilloma virus.
There are over a 100 strains of human papilloma virus (HPV). Some of these strains cause changes to cells... Full Post
Who should have a Pap test?
Women should begin having pap smears at age 21. If the pap smears are normal, she should repeat the test every 3 years. At age 30, she may also test for HPV (human papilloma virus) with the Pap smear.
A woman who has had normal pap smears and negative HPV tests should continue to have pap smears... Full Post
At what age should I stop having Pap smears?
A woman over 30 years old, who has had normal pap smears and negative HPV tests, should continue to have pap smears every 5 years. She may stop having pap smears at age 65.
If a woman has had abnormal pap smears or is HPV positive, or has high risk conditions such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure... Full Post
How often should I have pap smears after menopause?
A woman who is no longer having menstrual periods, and has had normal pap smears and negative HPV tests, should continue to have pap smears every 5 years. She may stop having pap smears at age 65.
If a woman has had abnormal pap smears or is HPV positive, or has high risk conditions such as diethylsti... Full Post