Thyroid cancer mostly affects the thyroid gland, which produces important hormones. Normally, the hormones produced by the thyroid regulate important body functions like digestion, heart rate, and body temperature. However, thyroid cancer causes abnormal growth of thyroid cells, which can cause tumors to form in the neck and on the thyroid gland. This affects the production and regulation of the thyroid hormones, which causes problems throughout the body.
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Thyroid cancer is a disease that occurs when abnormal cells begin to grow in the thyroid gland. You may notice a lump in your neck and then go to your doctor. Or your doctor may notice a lump during a routine physical exam or on an imaging test that you are having for another health problem.
Thyroid cancer is usually found before the cancer has spread very far. This means that most people who are treated for thyroid cancer do very well. After it is treated, thyroid cancer may come back, sometimes many years after treatment.
Before starting your treatment, your doctor needs to find out which type of thyroid cancer you have. A biopsy can identify your type of cancer. During a biopsy, a small piece of thyroid tissue is removed, usually with a fine needle. The thyroid tissue cells are then examined under a microscope.
It is also important to find out the stage of your cancer. Staging is a way for your doctor to tell how far, if at all, the cancer has spread. It also helps your doctor decide what kind of treatment you need. Staging generally depends on the results of your radioactive iodine scan.
If you have your thyroid gland surgically removed, you will probably need to take thyroid hormone medicine for the rest of your life to replace the hormones that were made by your thyroid. Taking it will help regulate your metabolism and other body functions.
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