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Vitrectomy to remove an epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a complex operation which improves vision in about 80 per cent of patients. The visual prognosis is dependent upon multiple factors such as the cause of the ERM, the duration of visual loss and the preoperative vision. Sometimes the ERM cannot be completely removed with the initial surgery and additional surgery can be considered. Improvements may appear in as little as three months, but in some patients it may take up to a year for visual improvement to occur.