Radiation treatment is administered to a specific place in the body. after effects occur only in the area of the body that was exposed to the radiation (known as local effects).
In some cases, X-rays in the intended field may scatter and expose surrounding tissues and organs to small doses of radiation. Depending on the position of a tumor, it could also be necessary to include healthy tissue and organs in the field in order to ensure complete treatment of the cancer.
Some radiation after effects may be similar to those caused by chemotherapy.
Examples of after effects that are specific to radiation include:
Cataracts, if treated near the eyes, cranial-spinal or if given Total
Body Irradiation (TBI)) Permanent hair loss if the scalp is radiated over certain dose levels Dental decay, tooth loss, receding gums if radiated near the mouth Loss of tears and the ability to produce saliva if lacrimal or salivary
glands in the face are radiated or there has been TBI Problems with thyroid and adrenal glands if the neck is radiated Slowed or halted bone growth in children if bone is radiated Affects on the pituitary gland and multiple hormonal effects if the
hypothalamic-pituitary region is radiated Decreased range of motion in the treated area Skin sensitivity to sun exposure in area of skin that is radiated Problems with the bowel system if the abdomen is radiated Secondary cancers in the areas radiated Infertility, if ovaries, testes, cranial-spinal area or TBI is directly