The most common side effects of radiation therapy are temporary skin irritation and temporary fatigue. Radiation to the throat can cause soreness in the mouth. Radiation to the chest can cause discomfort in swallowing. Radiation to the abdomen can cause nausea. Radiation therapy to the pelvis can cause diarrhea. There are less common and rare side effects of radiation therapy.
For an excellent discussion of this topic, I recommend: http://www.cancer.net/all-about-cancer/cancernet-feature-articles/treatments-tests-and-procedures/side-effects-radiation-therapy.
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